CHAPTER V                          HOME

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THE MINOR VARIETIES OF CHERRIES

A Coeur Hative. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159- 1882. Listed in this reference.

A Feuilles de Pecher Grosse. P. cerasus? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 49. 1831. Merely mentioned; probably similar to Willow Leaved.

Abels Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort- 55. 1907. Mentioned in this reference as a black, hard-fleshed, Sweet Cherry.

Abundance. P. avium. 1. Burbank Cat. 7. 1911-12.
Abundance is one of Burbank's seedlings from Napoleon. The tree is a heavy, almost annual bearer. The fruit is large, never cracks, and exceeds the parent in productiveness and beauty; it ripens a week later.  [Description from Cherries of Utah]

Abbesse. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 80. 1890. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2,:284. 1903.
Abbesse was found in North Silesia and is supposed to be a Red Duke cross. Fruit medium to large, cordate; stem long, thick at the base; cavity shallow; suture distinct; skin dark red; flesh meaty, with colored juice, mildly acid; quality good.

Act Gillos. P. avium. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 22. 1892-93 Act Gillos was imported by Leo Weltz of Ohio, in a collection of sweet varieties said to have come from Bokhara, Turkestan. Tree vigorous; leaves large; fruit yellow, resembling Cleveland.

Adams Crown. P. avium. 1. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit1:45, P1. 23 fig. 1. 1823. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 275, 277. 1884. Mawe-Abercrombie Comp. Gard632. 1829. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:312 fig., 313. 1877. Adams Herzkirsche. 5. Ill. Handb. 99 fig., 100. 1960. 6. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 332. 1889. Adam. 7. Mas Le Verger 8:69, 70, fig. 33. 1866-73.  Adams Crown is supposed to have been raised by a man named Adams in the vicinity of Sittingbourne, Kent, England. It was formerly grown in the orchards near London for market trade. Tree large, vigorous, usually productive, bears early; fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, flattened at the base, slightly compressed; cavity wide, deep; suture shallow, indistinct; stem slender, long; skin thin, transparent, attractive pale red speckled with darker red deepening to carmine, showing distinctly the fibers undeneath; flesh whitish, juicy, tender, sotnewhat stringy, sweet, sprightly, pleasant; very good in quality; stone small, roundish-ovate, flattened at the base, plump; season early.

Adlington. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 45. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

Affane. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 45. 1831. Mentioned in this reference.

Afghanistan. P. avium. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 315. 1897. 2. Van Lindley Cat. 371. 1899. This variety is said by Van Lindley to have been introduced into North Carolina by a missionary from South Africa. The fruit closely resembles Windsor. Tree tall, spreading, vigorous; fruit large, cordate, often swollen along the suture giving it an angular appearance; skin dark red to reddish-black; flesh firm, tender, sweet; ships well; season the last of May.

Alaternblaettrige Suessweichsel. P.avium. 1. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:481858.
Fruit medium large, roundish, flattened, with a faint suture; skin glossy, brownish-red; stem mostly covered with leaves, greenish-yellow; flesh soft, acidulated; stone heart-shaped.

Albertine Millet. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 22. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 17. 1805.
Received from Belgium without description; its value is questioned in Guide Pratique.

Alexandrine Beon. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. POM. 332. 1889. Listed in this reference.

Alfred Wesmael. P. cerasus. 1. ThomasGuide Prat. 25. 1876. 2. Guide Prat- 17. 1895.
This variety is similar to Montmorencyaccording to Guide Pratique.

Allen. P. avium. 1. Storrs & Harrison Cat. 137- 1899. 2. Brown Cat. 23. 1900.
A seedling cherry found in Lake County, Ohio. It is darker, later and smaller than Windsor. The tree is healthy, very productive; fruit somewhat heart-shaped, nearly black, glossy, smooth; flesh meaty, firm, sweet; of small size.

Allen Late Favourite. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 123. 1832.
Sent to the Prince nursery by Zachariah Allen of Providence, Rhode Island. The tree is vigorous; fruit of fine quality, juicy, well flavored; ripens in Rhode Island with Black Mazzard.

Allerfrueheste Bunte Maiherzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3-19. 1858.
Tree productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; stem long, deeply set; skin clear red, spotted with dark brown; flesh whitish, sweet; stone oval; ripens in mid-June.

Alte Koenigskirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Obstbaeume 158. 1791. 2. Christ Handb. 671. 1797. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 422. 1819. Tree large, very productive; fruit large, round, slightly heart-shaped; stem long; skin reddish-black; flesh very delicate, tender, juicy, sweet, with an aromatic, very pleasing sourness; stone small.

Altenlander Fruehkirsche. P..avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 465 fig., 466, 1861.
Cerise precoce d'Altenland. 2. Mortillet Le CeriSier 2:301. 1866.
This variety is distinguished from Fruehe Maiherzkirsche by its fruits which are larger, deeper in color, sourer and more angular and a few days later. Tree productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate, sometimes angular; cavity wide, shallow; apex often widely depressed; stem stout, of medium length; suture shallow; skin glossy, charcoal black in some spots when fully ripe, rather tough; flesh reddish-black, tender, very juicy, sweet with a pleasing sourness; stone short, oval; season early.

Amaranthkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Woerterb. 277. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 215-219. 1819. 3. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:28. 1858. In 1790, this variety was reported to have been brought to Hanover, Prussia, Germany, from England. Truchsess describes this cherry as being of medium size, roundish-cordate, with a pronounced suture; stem short; cavity shallow; apex abruptly rounded; skin red on the sunny side, yellowish, flesh-colored on the shady side; flesh tender, light yellowish white, juicy, sweet yet without excellence; stone round, rather broad, not long, nearly free; unproductive.

Amarelle Hative. P. cerasus. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 317:6 fig. 1892. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 899. 3. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12: I ID. 1900. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909-
This variety was imported by Professor J.L. Budd of Iowa, in 1885. It resembles Early Richmond but ripens ten days later. It appeared on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1899 and in 1909 Morello Hative was given as a synonym. This variety, however, is of the Amarelle type while Morello Hative is a true Morello.

Amarelle mit Weissem Stempelpunct- P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 655, 656. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:70. 1858.
Amarelle a point pistillaire blanc. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159. 1882.
According to Truchsess, this variety was first mentioned by Christ as early as 1795, under the name, Roque Cherydere. Fruit of medium size, roundish, flattened; stem short; skin dark red; flesh white, with colorless juice, although a glistening red when pressed out, subacid; season early; medium productive; resembles Bunte Amarelle.

Amber. P. avium. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 272. 1832.
This variety was found in an old garden in Providence, Rhode Island. Fruit below medium in size, perfectly round; amber, delicate red towards the sun; flesh melting, lively, very sweet; early.

Amber Gean. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 169. 1845. 2. Gard. Chron. 1068. 1861. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 277. 1884 Amber? 4. Rea Flora 206. 1676. Late Amber Gean. 5. Fish Hardy-Fr. Bk. 2:105. 1882.
This is probably the Amber of the old English writers - an attractive, small Gean or Mazzard. Tree bears abundantly; fruit small, obtuse-cordate, usually regular; stem long, slender, shallowly inserted; skin very thin, pellucid, exhibiting the texture of the flesh, pale yellow or amber, tinged with delicate red; flesh white, tender, juicy, melting, with a rich, sweet, pleasant flavor; ripens the last of July.

Ambree de Guben. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2,: 198, 199, 303. 1866. 2. Mas Le Verger 8:99, 100, fig, 48. 1866-73.
Gubener Bernsteinkirsche. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 342, 685. 1819. 4.
Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:42. 1859. This variety resembles Yellow Spanish; in fact the name is listed as a synonym of Yellow Spanissh by Mortillet. We feel sure, however, that it is a distinct variety. Fruit large, roundish-odrdate, truncate at the base; suture shallow; stem long; cavity wide, shallow; skin glossy, pale yellow washed with carmine in the sun; flesh firm fibrous, sweet, with a sourness that disappears if allowed to remain on the tree; quality good; stone oval, slightly flattened at the base; ripens the first of July in France.

American Amber. P. avium. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 272. 1832. 2. DowningFr. Trees Am. 167. 1845. 3. Bridgeman Gard. Ass't Pt3:54 1847 4. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 359. 1849. 5. Elliott Frt. Book 214. 1854. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862.
This variety was introduced some time previous to 1832 by the originator, Daniel Bloodgood, Flushing, New York. It held a place on the American Pomological Society's list of fruits from 1862 Until 1869. It resembles American Heart but differs in being a tender-fleshed fruit of regular outline. Tree productive; fruit hanging in bunches for a long time without rotting. Fruit borne in threes or fours, hangs well, of mediutn size, roundish-cordate often nearly round; stem long, slender, inserted in a slight, narrow cavity; skin very thin, smooth, glossy, clear, light amber becoming mottled and overspread with clear bright red; flesh amber, tender, sprightly, juicy, usually of only fair quality; pit large; season the last of June to the middle of July.

American Heart. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 9: 202. 1843. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 178, 79 fig. 70. 1845. 3. Bridgeman Gard. Ass't Pt- 3:54. 1847.
According to Downing, this variety came from Long Island but its exact origin is unknown. Tree vigorous, spreading, variable in productiveness; fruit mediurn to large, cordate, often nearly angular and irregular in outline; cavity small, shallow; stem long, slender; skin tough, adhering to the pulp, pale yellow or amber-red; flesh very juicy, yellowish, half-tender, sweet, pleasant; very good in quality; stone medium in size.

Amos Owen. P. avium. 1.N. C. Sta. Bul. 184: I 2 1. 1903.
Amos Owen is a black Mazzard used by nurserymen as a stock for grafting. The fruit is small and black; of poor quality.

Andrews. Species? 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 187. 1908.
Andrews is a seedling named after C.N. Andrews, Redlands, California, who fruited it in 1896. It is grown in the mountain valley near Redlands and is apparently a fine shipping variety.

Anne. P. avium. :1. Elliott Fr. Book 204. 1894. 2. DoNvning Tr. Trees Am. 254. 1897.
This cherry is reported by Charles Downing to have originated at Lexington, Kentucky; distributed by A.V. Bedford, Paris, Kentucky. Tree moderate in growth; fruit of medium size, bright red; flesh tender, juicy, very sweet; quality excellent; early.

Annonay. P. avium. 1. Flor. & Pom. 28. 1882. 2. Rivers Cat. 18. 1398-99. 3. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard- 43. 1904.
Annonayer Herzkirsche- 4. Proskauer Obstsort. 55. 1907-
A Heart cherry mentioned in 1882 as a promising new fruit because of its extreme earliness and excellent quality. This variety, introduced by Thomas Rivers & Son, Sawbridgeworth, England, should not be confused with an older French sort often known by the same name but of a reddish-brown color. Tree moderate in growth; fruit glossy, black, round, of medium size, produced in clusters; flesh charcoal-black, very rich in flavor.

Anstad. P. avium. 1. Out. Fr. Cr. Assoc. Rpt. 17. 1908.
A seedling from seeds planted in 1898 by A.P. Anstad, Trail, British Columbia. The fruit is large, heart-shaped; cavity of medium depth and width; stem long, slender; apex depressed; suture indistinct; skin moderately thick, tender, dark red or blackish; dots obscure; flesh dull red, meaty, juicy, sweet, pleasant; quality good; stone of medium size, clinging; season in Ontario, the end of July.

Argental Late. P. avium. 1. Barry Fr. Garden 325. 1851. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 451. 1869.
Downing says this variety is of French origin and that the fruit is unlike any other cherry in form. Tree spreading; branches slender, irregular; fruit of medium size, elongated-oval, sides compressed; suture narrow; stem medium in length, slender; cavity small; skin deep purplish-black; flesh half-tender, juicy, sweet, of peculiar flavor; quality very good; stone small, narrow, elongated-oval; ripens about July 10th.

Auburn Duke. P. aviumXP. cerasus.
A stray variety not mentioned in cherry literature, occasionally grown in western New York The fruit, on the Station grounds, is above medium size, roundish; skin glossy, amber-yellow with a dark red cheek, often wholly suffused with red, sometimes mottled with translucent spots underneath the skin; suture a distinct line; stem slender, one and one-half inches long, inserted in a broad cavity; flesh white, very tender, juicy, nearly sweet; quality good but not rich; stone small, adhering to the stem; season late June. The fruit cracks in wet weather.

August Duke. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Cultivator 3rd Ser. 1:248 fig., 249, 1853. Vail's August Duke. 2. Horticulturist 4:264 fig., 265. 1849-50. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 213. 1854.
This variety originated with Henry Vail of Troy, New York. It is valued for its lateness, maturing three weeks after Downer, generally about the tenth of August. Tree hardy, healthy, moderate in growth; fruit borne in pairs, hanging in thick clusters along the branches, of medium size, obtuse-cordate; stem of medium length, thickening where it joins the fruit, set in a deep, narrow cavity; skin bright red; flesh tender, subacid, much like May Duke in flavor; pit oval.

Augustine de Vigny. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 333. 1889. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- 54. 1856. Mentioned in the references given.

Aurischotte. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort589-59,. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:65. 1858. According to Truchsess, this cherry was described in 1802 by Christ who states that it originated in Wanfred, Prussia, Germany. Truchsess believed, however, that the name was a corruption of Sauriotte, a sour or Weichsel cherry. Fruit round, somewhat flattened, above medium in size; suture indistinct; apex slightly depressed, gray; stem strong; skin dark red; flesh and juice of a slight reddish cast, sour, rather repulsive; stone large.

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Badacsony. P. avium. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 177:31 1899. 2. Ibid. 187:62. 1901.
Geante de Badacson. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 27, 104. 1876.
Badacsoner Riesenkirsche- 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 333. 1889.
Badacconyi. 5. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169; 198. 1899.
Badacsoner Schwarze Riesenkirsche. 6. Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift 122. 1910.
Badacsonyer Knorpelkirsche. 7. Obstzuechter 8:74. 1910. A strong-growing variety of the Bigarreau group which originated in the volcanic regions near Balaton Lake, Hungary. Tree spreading, productive, subject to shot-hole fungus; fruit very large, heart-shaped, compressed; stem long, slender; cavity deep, wide; skin dark red, mottled with purple; flesh crisp, breaking, pinkish, juicy, sweet; quality good; ripens in July.

Baender. P. cerasus. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 88:20. 1892. 2. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:12, 1910.
An unproductive Morello. Tree medium in size, upright, round-topped; fruit medium to large, round, flattened; stem stout, long; skin dark red, thin, tender; flesh firm, meaty, slightly stained, rich acid; stone long, smooth; ripens the last of July in Washington.

Baltavar. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt39. 1895 2. Budd-Hansen Pom. Hort. Man. 2:284. 1903.
Bigarreau monstreux de Baltava- 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 1876.
Baltavari- 4. Mich. Sta- Bul. 169:199- 1899.
Baltavaer Knorpelkirsche 5. Proskauer Obstsort- 55. 1907.
Baltavar was introduced from Hungary by the United States Department of Agriculture. Tree upright, somewhat spreading; fruit resembles Napoleon in size and shape; cavity medium in depth, irregular, flaring; stem variable, slender; suture shallow; skin thick, glossy, light red changing to dark crimson on a yellow ground; dots numerous, minute, golden; flesh melting, yellowish, meaty, translucent, juicy, sprightly, mild sub acid; quality good to very good; stone large, long, clinging; ripens the forepart of July.

Baluder Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Kan. Sta. Bul.73:189. 1897-
Tree upright, unproductive; fruit medium to large; stem slender; skin dull red, tough; flesh red, tender, juicy, acid, lacking in richness; ripens unevenly about June 18th; not a commercial variety.

Barnhart. P. avium. r. Gard. Mon. 18:242. 1876. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 161. 1881.
This variety originated with Louis Shepler, Belle Vernon, Pennsylvania. Tree healthy, vigorous, bears abundantly; fruit of the Bigarreautype, large, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity large, deep; stem rather long, slender; suture shallow; skin whitish yellow, shaded and mottled with light and dark, rich red; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, with a rich, rather sprightly flavor; ripens the last of June.

Baseler Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 22. 1876. A medium-sized cherry of little value.

Bates. P. cerasus. 1. Green Cat. 28 fig. 1906.
Said to have originated with S.J. Bates, Shelby, Michigan; introduced by C.A. Green, Rochester, New York; not propagated at present. As grown on our grounds it is identical with Olivetbut our trees may not be correctly named.

Bay State. P. cerasus. 31. Adams Cat. 11. 1894. 2,. Sweet Cat. 18. 1907.
Bay State on the Station grounds resembles Reine Hortense and may be identical. (See description of Reine Hortense.) In 1894 it was listed by J.W. Adams of Springfield, Massachusetts, under the name Bay State and in 1907 was offered for sale by The George A. Sweet Nursery Company of Dansvine, New York.

Baylor. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:159. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Bedford Prolific. P. avium. 1. Thornas Guide Prat. 22. 1876. 2. Flor. & Pom. 41, P1. fig. 1. :1882.
Bedford Prolific is similar to its parent, Black Tartarian, but has the advantage of being much hardier and more productive. It is inferior in quality to its parent. Many writers confuse it with Black Tartarian.

Belle Audigeoise. P. aviumXP. cerasus. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 5:65, P1. 1857.
Schoene Audigeoise. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 376. 1880.
Very similar to Choisy. Tree vigorous, but moderately productive; fruit large, roundish, flattened at the ends; stem of medium length; cavity large, round; skin glossy, transparent, almost entirely washed with red at complete maturity; flesh yellowish, juicy, sweet, acidulated; ripens in France late in July.

Belle Bosc. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 45. 1831. Listed in the reference given.

Belle de Boskoop. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159. 1882. Listed in this reference without description.

Belle de Caux. P. avium. 1. Guide Prat- 17. 1895. Listed as similar to Duchess de Palluau.

Belle de Couchey. P. avium. 1. Rev. hort. 412. 1866. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:137, 138, fig. 69. 1882.
Schoene von Couchey- 3. Proskauer Obstsort- 57. 1907.
Raton, a laborer, found this variety in 1715, growing in a garden in Cote d'Or, France. Here and in the surrounding country it was commonly known as Cerise Raton. Tree vigorous, abundantly productive; fruit large, heart-shaped, irregular, often flattened; stem long, slender, inserted in a large, deep cavity; apex conical; skin tender, at first clear purple changirig to blackish-purple; flesh tender, rather succulent, intense purple, juicy, sweet, sugary, very pleasing; stone small for the size of the fruit, ovate, short, broad, turgid; ripens the last of June. In France, one of the best fruits of the season standing shipment well notwithstanding its tender flesh.

Belle Defay. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 334. 1880 Listed without a description in this reference.

Belle de Franconville. P.avium. 1. Rev. hort. 463. 1891. 2. ibid. 14, 15 fig. 1892 This variety is a chance seedling found in the forests of Seine-et-Oise, France, and propagated by M. Arthur Nienard, a nurseryman of the same place. The variety is valued for its lateness and its good shipping qualities. Fruit elongated-cordate, slightly depressed; suture rather deep; cavity rather large, regular; stem slender, long; skin glossy, brilliant purplish-red, firm; flesh clear yellow, rather transparent, juicy, sprightly yet sugary, agreeable but slightly strong; pit oblong, tapering at the top, truncate, partly adherent; season late September in France.

Belle l'Herissier. P. avium. 1. Rev. hort. 470, P1. 1975.
This cherry was raised from seed in 1865 by M. Doublet, horticulturist at Montrichard, Loir-et-Cher, France. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, usually borne in clusters, depressed on the side, with a faint suture; stem very long, slender, adhering strongly to the pit; skin a brilliant red but never black; flesh pale red, juicy, sweet, slightly sprightly; quality very good; pit irregular, very small, elongated; ripens the middle of June in France.

Belle de Kis-Oers. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 13. 1895 This is a Hungarian cherry. Fruit of medium size, elongated, marbled with red; flesh white, sugary; in France it ripens the middle of July.

Belle de Loche. P. avium x P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 25, 187. 1876, This name is wrongly used as a synonym of Magnifique. Distributed by Jacquement-Bonnefont, nursery at Annonay, Ardeche, France, who described it as a very good, large, productive fruit, ripening in June.

Belle d'Orleans. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 16:358, 540 fig. 1850. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 211. 1856- 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier2:84, 85 fig., 86. 1866- 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:314 fig., 315. 1877.
Beauty of Orleans. 5. Ill. Handb. 15 fig., 16. 1867- 6. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 415. 1899.
Belle de Bruxelles.7. Guide Prat. 10, 17, 18,. 1895.
Some writers state that Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, originated this variety about 1852; others hold that it is of French origin. Tree large, very vigorous, productive; fruit usually attached in pairs, medium to above in size, roundish-oval or often cordate; stem medium in length, rather slender; skin transparent, clear pale yellow with a light red cheek, occasionally slightly mottled; flesh pale amber, juicy, tender, sweet; good in quality; stone large, roundish-obovate; season early.

Belle de Ribeaucourt. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:269. 1854. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:181, 210. 1866- 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:170 fig., 171. 1877.
Schoene von Ribeaucourt- 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 33 5, 377. 1889.
This variety probably originated in Northern France. Fruit globular, flattened at the ends, large, usually borne in twos; stem long; cavity large, deep; skin transparent, red, more intense in the sun; flesh yellow, rose-colored under the skin, sweet, juicy, acidulated; pit small, oval, round; ripens about the middle of June.

Belle de Rochelle. Species? 1. Gard. Chron. 1068. 1861.
Mentioned as remarkable for its size, its abundant juice and rich flavor which are said to make it one of the best fruits of its season. Its long stems facilitate picking.

Belle de Rocmont. P. avium 1. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 1: 167, 169. 1768.
Glanzende goldgelb und roth marmorirte Kramelkirsche. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:3, Tab. 5 fig. 2. 1792.
Schoene von Rocmont. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 311-316. 1819.
Pigeon's Heart. 4. Prince Treat. Hort. 30. 1828.
Bigarreau belle de Rocmont. 5. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 46. 1831.
Coeur de Pigeon Gros. 6.ibid.48- 1831.
Pigeon Heart Bigarreau. 7.PrincePom.Man.2:127. 1832.
Bigarreaude Rocmont. 8.PoiteauPom. Franc.2:No,6,Pl. 1846.
Rocmonter Marmorkirsche. 9. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:39. 1858.
Rothe Spanische Marmorkirsche. 10. Ibid. 39,40, 1858. Belle de Rocmont is so similar to Yellow Spanish that some writers consider them the same. If not the same they are so nearly so that a description of this variety is unnecessary.

Belle de Saint Tronc. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 1876. 2. Flor. & Pom. 117. 1878. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 334, 359. 1889.
This Heart cherry was introduced in 1873 by M. Antonie, Marseilles, Bouches-du Rhone, France. It is described by the French as a brownish-black cherry but Rivers lists it as a light red sort. Fruit cordate; stem short; brownish-black; flesh deep red, juicy; first quality; early; productive.

Belle Vezzouris. Species? 1. Downing Fr. Trees AM. 278. 1857. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 664. 1897. A medium to large, light red, somewhat transparent cherry with a subacid flavor; quality good; ripens with Downer.

Belle de Voisery. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 334. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 17. 1895. Similar to Duchesse de Palluau according to Guide Pratique.

Bender (of Michigan). P. cerasus. 1. Wood Cat. 32. 1912. This is a seedling found by a man named Bender near Shelby, Michigan. It ripens between Early Richmond and Montmorency, surpassing the latter in size, color and quality; sour.

Bender (of New York). P. avium X P. cerasus. Marguerite. 1. McKay Cat. 7. 1912. This variety is an accidental seedling found by J.O. Bender, Fayetteville, New York, about 1875. It is a late cherry of the Duke group. The fruit is attractive both in size and color, making a valuable market sort. Fruit roundish-cordate to oblate, compressed; cavity medium, flaring; suture very shallow; stem slender, above medium in length; skin of mcdium thickness and toughness, separating from the pulp, light red, yellowish on the shaded side; flesh pale yellow, somewhat coarse and stringy, tender, melting, subacid, juicy; good in quality; stone large, slightly clinging along the ventral suture. Very similar toLate Duke.

Berlin Amarelle. P. cerasus. 31. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 549. 1901. A vigorous variety received from L. Spath, Berlin, Germany. Fruit mediurn to large, oval; skin glossy red; flesh tender, juicy, pleasingly acid; season from the middle to the last of July in Canada.

Bernard. P. cerasus. 1. Am. Hort. An. 88. 1860. Described by D.B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois, as a seedling of the Morello group. Tree vigorous, pyramidal in growth; fruit the size, shape, color and flavor of English Morello but with a smaller pit.

Bettenburger Glaskirsche. P.aviumXP. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 445, 446, 689. 1819. 2. Ill. Handb. 171 fig., 172. 1860.
Transparent de Bettenburg. 3. Mas Le Verger 8:77, 78, fig. 37. 1866-73.
Belle Allemande. 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 25. 1876.
Truchsess, a German, grew this variety from a stone of the Prager Muscateller, in 1794. The tree has a close growth and with its large, wide leaves is easily recognized from other light Dukecherries. The fruit is often confused with Double Glass but the color is darker, the stem longer and thicker, the flavor sweeter, and the season from eight to ten days later. Tree moderately vigorous; fruit large, cordate, rather obtuse, with a pronounced suture extending into the cavity; stem long, set in a smooth, shallow cavity; skin tough, clear purple changing to dark red; flesh yellowish-white, transparent, juicy, not colored unless well ripened, sweetish-sour, slightly aromatic; stone of medium size, globular, plump, truncate at the base; season late.

Bettenburger Herzlkirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 65 fig., 66. 1860.
Bettenburger Schwarze Herzkirsche. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 115, 116. 1819.
Guigne de Bettenbourg. 3. Mortillet Le Cerisie 72:301. 1866. This variety is a seedling of a worthless black Heartcherry, raised by Truchsess in 1704. Fruit very large, flattened, heart-shaped, sides compressed; stem short, set in a shallow cavity; apex slightly depressed; skin tough, deep dark-brown with light spots; turning black when ripe; flesh tender, juicy, very sweet; stone almost small, plump, roundish; season the last of June in Germany.

Bettenburger Kirsche von der Natte. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 507-511. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:61. 1859. A variety received by Truchsess as Kirsche von der Natte and disseminated by him as such. After a few years he found that it was not true to name and to avoid further confusion added the word Bettenburger. Fruit large, roundish, flattened at the base; suture indistinct; stem short, slender, shallowly inserted; skin tough, dull, dark brown, inclined to black; flesh dark red, juicy, aromatic, subacid; stone not large, plump; ripens the middle of July in Germany.

Bettenburger Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:62, 63. 1858.
Bettenburger Weichsel Grosser Gobet. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 521, 522, 523. 1819. Bettenburger Weichsel van der Natte- 3. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 171. 1825.
Griotte de Bettenbourg- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 2 2, 194. 1876. This German variety came from seeds of Grosse Gobet planted by Truchsess in 1794. Fruit very large, sides compressed; skin tough, dark brownish-red; flesh and juice dark, pleasingly sour, improves if left on the tree; stone large, cordate, pointed.

Bicolor Van Mons. Species? 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:99, 208. 1866.
Fruit medium in size, slightly elongated; attractively variegated with red; of mediocre quality; matures the last fortnight of June.

Bigarreau Abbesse de Mouland. P. avium. 1. Mathieu NOm- Pom. 334. 1889.  Listed in the reference given.

Bigarreau Antoine Nomblot.P.avium. 1. Rev. hort. 569, 570, P1. 1912.
In 1903, Alfred Nomblot planted what he believed to be a seed of Bigarreau Doennissen but the resulting tree in many of its characters resembledBigarreau Noir de Kruger which stood near the supposed parent. A cross between these varieties might result in a dark fruit similar to this. Tree vigorous, upright, very productive; fruit above medium in size, cordate, attached in ones, twos and threes; stem long; skin marbled with purple changing to black; flesh firm, sugary, juicy, high flavored; pit small, ovoid; early. Recommended by the Societe Pomologique de France as a good, early cherry.

Bigarreau Blanc Precoce. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 144. 1882. A short description of the tree-characters is given in this reference.

Bigarreau Blanc-Rose de Piemont. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 22. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 17. 1895.
Matures late; according to Guide Pratique, 1895, it is very similar to Napoleon.

Bigarreau Bordan. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 183, 184 fig. 1877.
Bordan's fruehe weisse Herzkirsche. 2.Dochnahl Fuehr.Obstkunde3:27- 1858.
Bordans Herzkirsche- 3. Ill. Handb. 97 fig., 98. 1860. 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 18, 197. 1876.
Guigne Blanche de Bordan. 5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:97, 98, 208. 1866.
This variety was raised by M. Bordan of Guben, Prussia, Germany, and was first described by Oberdieck. Leroy lists it as a Bigarreau as he believes the flesh is too firm for a Guigne as many Germans have described it. Tree hardy, productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, elongated-cordate, sides and base often compressed; suture shallow; stem long, slender, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin glossy, yellowish, spotted and streaked with red, becoming almost entirely washed with red in the sun; flesh tender, whitish, juicy, sugary, slightly acidulated, pleasing; stone mediurn, oval, turgid; season early.

Bigarreau de Bourget. P.avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 335. 1889, Listed without a description by Mathieu.
Bigarreau Brun. P.avium. 1.KnoopFructologie2:35. 1771 Not described.
Bigarreau de Capucins. P. avium. 1. Gard. Chron. N.S. 19:255. 1883.
Kapuziner Knorpel. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 364. 889.
This variety is little known out of Belgium. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-oblong, regular, depressed at the ends; skin amber-yellow, blushed with red; flesh white, crisp, juicy.

Bigarreau de la Caserne. P. avium. 1. Gard. Chron. 663. 1866.
According to the reference this variety is spoken of in La Belgique Horticole as a variety with prodigious leaves, yellow fruit dashed with red and of good quality.

Bigarreau Cayenne. P.avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 22. 1876. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:186fig. 1877.
Cayenner Knorpelkirsche- 3-ProskauerObstsort-55. 1907.
This variety was received by Leroy in 1857 from Angouleme, Charente, France. Fruit generally borne in pairs; of medium size, oval, somewhat cylindrical, compressed at the extremities, with a large, rather deep suture; apex generally prominent; stem long; cavity broad and regular; skin thick, yellow, washed with pale red changing to lively red in the sun; flesh yellowish, firm, brittle, juicy, sweet, slightly sugary and aromatic; pit large, oval, slightly convex; ripens the last of June to the first of July.

Bigarreau de Chalons. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 131, 132, 209. 1866. A local variety, widely known in the departments of Jura and Saone-et-Loire, France, as Chalonnaise- Fruit large, roundish-cordate, depressed at the base, one face flattened, the other bulged; suture slight; stem short; skin a deep purple tint in the sun, spotted with clear red in the shade; flesh white or of a slight rose color, with uncolored juice, sugary, aromatic; pit small; season the middle of June,

Bigarreau de Champvans- P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 876. 2. Guide Prat. 17. 1895.
This is an excellent cherry of the Bigarreau type with colored juice and transparent skin, which originated in the department of Saone-et-Loire, France; said in the second reference to be similar to Napoleon.

Bigarreau Corniola. P.avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 19 1, 192 fig. 1877.
The name Corniola is derived from cornaline, the French for cornelian. Tree medium in size and productiveness; fruit attached in twos or threes, large, roundish, slightly compressed at the ends 2nd faces; suture deep; stem short, set in a rather deep cavity; skin whitish-yellow, largely washed with rose color and spotted with deep carmine; flesh yellowish, firm, not fibrous, juicy, sugary, slightly acidulated; first quality; season early June.

Bigarreau Court Picout Hatif. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen.l1:159. 1882. Listed in this reference.

Bigarreau Court Picout Tardif. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159. 1882. Mentioned in the reference given.

Bigarreau Doennissen. P.avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 16, 189. 1876. Doennissens gelbe Knorpelkirsche. 2. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 162. 1825 3. Dochnal Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:44. 1858. 4. Ill. Handb. T45 fig., T46. 1860. Bigarreau jaune de Doennissen- 5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:304. 2866. This variety is a seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany, named for the originator; it fruited first about 1824. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit attached in twos, sometimes threes, large, roundish-cordate; suture slight; stem long, rather stout; cavity broad, shallow; skin glossy, transparent, yellowish-orange when ripe; flesh whitish, firm, slightly fibrous, moderately juicy, sugary, pleasingly acidulated; first quality; pit large, ovoid, plump; ripens the last of June to the first of July.

Bigarreau Dore. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 22. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 15. 1895 Fruit yellow, round.

Bigarreau Double Royale.P.avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 195 fig., 196. 1877.
Koenigliche Fleischkirsche. 2.Dochnahl Fuehr.Obstkunde3:34. 1858.
Koenigliche Herzkirsche. 3.Ill.Handb.467fig.,468. 1861.
Guigne Royale- 4-Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:301. 1866.
The fact that Oberdieck received this variety from the Societe Horticole de Prague under the French name Double Royale leads us to believe, as does Leroy, that it is of French rather than of Austrian origin as many German writers hold. Tree vigorous; fruit usually borne in pairs, large, cordate, rather abrupt at the ends; stem long, slender; cavity shallow; suture almost indistinct; skin glossy, reddish-brown to nearly black; flesh moderately tender, red, juicy, vinous, sweet; quality very good; pit small, ovoid, turgid; ripens about the rniddle of June.

Bigarreau Dur. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 46. 1831. Listed in this reference without description.

Bigarreau Duranno. P.avium. 1.LeroyDict.Pom-5:101. 1877.
This variety is first rnentioned by Leroy in 1868, appearing in his Catalog of 1975 incorrectly as Bigarreau Duracino. The trees are used for stocks. Fruit large, roundish cordate, uneven; suture naitow; stem long, slender; skin deep red in the sun; flesh firm, dry, acidulated, sugary; matures early in July.

Bigarreau Galopin. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:159- 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Bigarreau Glady. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 206 fig. 1877.
This variety was sent from the Jumard nursery about 1850 to Eugene Glady, Bordeaux, France. Fruit above medium in size, cordate, elongated; stem of medium length, set in a straight, deep cavity; skin brownish-red, striped with carmine; flesh a light rose color, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, slightly acidulated; first quality; pit of medium size; ripens the first of June.

Bigarreau Grand. P. avium. 1. Pom. France 7: No. 13, P1. 13. 1871. 2. Guide Prat 15. 1895. This cherry was introduced into the vicinity of Lyons, France, in 1849 by M. Grand who probably brought it from his nurserics in Italy. It has many characters in common with Lyons. Tree moderately vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, truncate at the base; suture wide, deep; stem medium, straight, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin thin, smooth, changing from a whitish-green to a rose-red and later to a deep crimson; flesh fine, half-tender, rose-colored, lighter near pit, with pale juice, sugary, aromatic; good; pit large, oval; season very early.

Bigarreau Groll. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 135 fig., 136. 1960. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:207 fig., 208. 1877. Grolls bunte Knorpelkirsche- 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 328, 329. 1819. Bigarreau blanc de Groll- 4. Guide Prat. 17, 192. 1895.
This seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany, bearing the name of its originator, has been known and rather widely written about since early in the Nineteenth Century. Tree of moderate vigor; fruit generally borne in pairs, large, cordate, truncate at the base; sides compressed and marked by a suture; stem long, set in a wide, sballow cavity; skin red, becoming darker, spotted and streaked; flesh yellowish, somewhat firm, juicy, aromatic; first quality; stone large, oval; ripens in June and hangs for a long time.

Bigarreau Gros Noir de Luther. P.avium. 1.ThomasGuidePrat.22. 1876. Listed in the reference given.

Bigarreau Hatif de Champagne. P.avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 876. 2. Guide Prat. 17. 1895 Found at Champagne, Ain, France, and introduced in 1873 by M. Fandon. The tree is an erect, vigorous grower; fruit large, brownish-black, ripening two weeks before Lyons; of little value.

Bigarreau Hatif de Saint-Laud. P.avium. 1.Mas Pom. Gen.11:107,108,fig-54 1882. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 337. 1889.
Fruit large, cordate, slightly irregular in outline; stern rather short, set in a wide, round cavity; skin clear red, striped with deeper red changing to purple; flesh rather tender, tinged red, with abundant colored juice, sugary, vinous; good; pit small, ovoid, slightly compressed; matures the middle of June.

Bigarreau d'Italie. P.avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:102-104, 219, fig. 21. 1866. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:211, 212 fig. 1877.
Bohemian Black Bigarreau- 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 76, 94. 1866.
Black Bohemian. 4. Fish Hardy-Fr. Bk. 2:104. 1882.
This old variety was much esteemed by the Italians and later by the Belgians who grew it as early as 1815; it is of more recent introduction into France and England. It is sometimes confused with the Florenceof Hogg and Downing. Fruit roundish, slightly heart-shaped, flattened at both ends; suture distinct; stem thick, short, inserted in an acute, deep cavity; skin firm, thick, glossy, very deep purple changing to black; flesh firm, dark, juicy, sugary, aromatic; pit medium, roundish-oval, convex, suture and grooves prominent; season the last two weeks of June.

Bigarreau Jacquet. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 337. 889. Listed in this reference.

Bigarreau Jumard. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 206. 1877.
Mentioned as having been received by Eugene Glady, Bordeaux, Gironde, France, in a shipment of trees received about 1850 from the Jumard nursery.

Bigarreau Krueger. P.avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 215, 216 fig. 1877.
Bigarreau noir de Krueger. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 22, 190. 1876.
Krueger's Schwarze Knorpelkirsche- 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 366. 18So.
This variety was introduced into France by M. Eugene Glady, 1858, from Guben, Prussia, Germany, and is thought to have becn originated by one of the Krueger family. Tree vigorous, bears early; fruit large to above, cordate, more or less roundish, faces compressed; suture wide; stem long, slender, set in a large cavity; skin yellowish-white, mingled with red, changing to brownish; flesh pale yellow, rather firm, slightly fibrous, juicy, sweet though sprightly; pit large, elongated-oval, flat; ripens toward the middle of June.

Bigarreau Legrey. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 74. 1866. A small, cordate-shaped Bigarreau, more curious than useful.

Bigarreau de Lory. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 205. 1819.  Bigarreau de Loire. 2. Mas Pom. Gen, 11:159. 1882.
Mentioned as a medium-sized, dark brownish-red, firm-fleshed fruit

Bigarreau Marjolet. P.avium. 1. Guide Prat. 7. 1895 Guigne Marjolet. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 1l:135, 136, fig. 68. 1882. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 360. 1889.
Bigarreau Marjeollais. 4. ibid.337- 1989.
Marjolets Knorpelkirsche- 5-ProskauerObstsort-571007.
The descriptions of the Guigne Marjolet and the Bigarreau Marjolet are identical and we have combined the two. The variety was named after its originator, M. Marjolet; tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, dark red; flesh tender, red, vinous, pleasing; ripens the middle of June.

Bigarreau Mongin. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 482. 1904.
Tree of medium growth; fruit medium in size, cordate; stem long, inserted in a deep cavity; skin clear yellow blushed with red; flesh yellowish-white, tender, juicy, sweet, pleasant; ripens in July in Canada.

Bigarreau Monstreuse de Bavay. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 235. 1854.
Spoken of, in 1854, as promising but evidently it has been discarded as no reference has been made to it since that date. It may be Reine Hortense.

Bigarreau Moreau. P. avium. 1. Rev. Hart. 552, 553, Pl- 1913.
This cherry recently originated as a chance seedling near Lyons, France, several persons claiming the honor of its discovery. Its value was discussed at the meetings of the Societe Pomologique de France in 1909 and 1911 when it was adjudged by leading French pomologists to be one of the earliest of all varieties, earlier than Lyons, and showing high commercial possibilities. Tree handsome in type of growth, with open, somewhat erect branches; leaves large, deeply serrate; fruit very large; color beautiful clear red becoming darker at maturity; flesh white, breaking, very firm, with uncolored juice, sweet, very refreshing; stone medium to small; season in France very early.

Bigarreau Napoleon Noir. P.avium. 1.Thomas GuidePrat.22. 1876. Bigarreau Noir Napoleon III. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:227 fig., 2 28. 1877. Napoleon Noir- 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 307. 1884. Herzkirsche Napoleon III. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 362 . 1889.
The origin of this cherry is uncertain. Leroy first noted it in the Simon-Louis catalog in 1867. To avoid confusion with the well-known Napoleon, he added the number III. Fruit usually attached in pairs, large, varying from elongated-oval to cylindrical; stem long, set in a large cavity; color dull red changing to deep maroon; flesh rose-colored, moderately firm, very juicy, sweet; ripens the last of June.

Bigarreau Noir d'Ecully. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 338. 1889. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 522. 1906. Ecullyer Knorpelkirsche- 3. Proskauer Obstsort- 55. 1907. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit medium in size, black at maturity; flesh firm, crisp, dark, vinous, sugary, juicy, good; late.

Bigarreau Noir a Gros Fruits. P. avium. 1. Le Bon Jard- 345. 1882.
Fruit large, flattened; flesh firm, sweet; first quality; ripens early in June.

Bigarreau Noir de Heintzen. P.avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 22, 190. 876.
Heintzen's (Heintze's) Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. 2,. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 362. 1889.
This is said to be a very good and productive cherry ripening in the fifth week of the cherry season.

Bigarreau Noir de Tabor. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 19, 190. 1876.
Tabors schwarze Knorpelkirsche. 2. Ill. Handb. 79 fig., 80. 1860.
Tree vigorous, upright; fruit of medium size, cordate, often obtuse; sides compressed; suture but a line; stem medium long; cavity variable; skin glossy, dark reddish-brown; flesh firm, dark red, sweet, rich; stone small, roundish; ripens the last of June.

Bigarreau d'Octobre. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 243. 1858. Oktober-Knorpelkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:38- 858.
This variety was refused a place on the American Pomological Society's fruit list in 1858. Fruit small, oval to roundish-cordate, flattened at the cavity; stem short; skin black, glossy: stone large, oval; good.

Bigarreau de l'Once. P.avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 190. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:5, 6, fig. 3. 1882.
It is thought that this variety originated in the vicinity of Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France. Fruit very large, elongated-cordate; suture distinct on one side, a colored line on the other side; stem very long, slender; cavity deep, large; skin a clear cherry-red on a yellow ground; flesh yellowish, crisp, firm, sweet, refreshing, with abundant, uncolored juice; quality good; pit large; season the first of July.

Bigarreau Pourpre. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 190. 1876.
Gros Bigarreau pourpre. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:212, 215, 218. 1866.
Tree vigorous; fruit large, roundish-cordate; skin deep reddish-brown; flesh firm, good; ripens early in July.

Bigarreau Printanier d'Oullins. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:159. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Bigarreau Reverchon. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:133. 1866. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:235 fig., 382. 1877. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 285. 1884.
M. Paul Reverchon introduced this variety about 1855, into France from Italy, where it had long been known about Florence as Bigarreau Papal. Tree vigorous, moderately productive; fruit attached in ones or twos, large, obtuse-cordate, marked distinctly on one side by the suture; stem thick, short, set in a prominent cavity; skin smooth, glossy, tough, rose-yellow streaked with purple in the sun and with red in the shade; flesh light red, crisp, fibrous, moderately juicy, rather sweet; pit small, ovoid, plump; season the last of June to the first of July.

Bigarreau Richelieu. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict- Pom. S '235, 236 fig. 877.
This variety, says Leroy, was introduced into France from Nikita, Crimea, Russia, about 1858. Fruit borne in pairs, large, elongated-cordate, with one side flattened; stem long, inserted in a small mamelonated cavity; skin glossy, yellowish-amber, with a rose- colored blush in the sun; flesh firm, breaking, filamentose, juicy, sweet, aromatic; first quality; stone of medium size, elongated-cordate; ripens the last of June.

Bigarreau Rosa. P. avium 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:239 fig. 1877.
Tree moderately productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, large, elongated-cordate, faces flattened; suture wide, deep; stem long, rather stout, set in a wide cavity; skin yellowish on rose-colored ground, amply washed with brilliant red on which are scattered small, white dots; flesh yellowish-white, firm, compact, filamentose, juicy, uncolored, rather sugary, acidulated, aromatic; second quahty; pit large, turgid; ripens the last of June.

Bigarreau Rose Dragon. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 96. 1877-
Reported by the Committee on Foreign Fruits in 1877 as worthy of trial but not grown at present. Fruit large, pale yellow, with a red cheek; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, good; season the middle of July.

Bigarreau de Schrecken. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 190. 1876.
Schreckens Kirsche. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 377. 1889-
Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; brownish-black, glossy; flesh moderately firm; first quality; matures in mid-June.

Bigarreau Strie. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 114, 115, 208. 1866.
Fruit large, elongated-cordate, faces compressed; suture wide; stem short, rather stout; skin many shades of red and purple on a rose-colored ground with flesh-colored spots; flesh reddish, firm, crisp, sweet; juice slightly colored; quality fair; stone small; season early; deteriorates rapidly.

Bigarreau de Trie. P. avium, 1. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 13. 1887.
Origin unknown, but rather widely cultivated around Trie, Hautes-Pryenees, France. Tree vigorous; fruit of medium size, roundish, compressed, slightly cordate; stem long, slender; skin tough, deep red, transparent, with a slight blush of amber; flesh whitish-yellow, very firm, juicy, uncolored, sugary, arornatic; good; season early July.

Bigarreau a Trochets. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 22. 1876. An extremely productive variety distributed in some parts of France; fruit large, red; flesh brittle; ripens in late June.

Bigarreau Turca. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict- Pom. 5:247, 248 fig. 1877.
This old cherry was described in 1785 as Heaume Rouge but was found in 1862 by Leroy in Florence, Italy, as Bigarreau Turca by which name it was well known. It is probably not of Turkish origin as the name would indicate. Fruit often borne in pairs, large, obtuse-cordate; suture noticeable but not deep; stem short; cavity spacious; color deep red, lightly spotted with gray; flesh rather firm, fibrous, mottled with hght red becoming darker near the pit, juicy, sweet, sprightly; pit large, ovoid, plump; ripens late in June.

Bigarreau de Walpurgis. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict. POM. 5: 2 5 0 fig. 1877. St. Walpurgiskirsche. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:35. 1858 Waipurgiskirsche. 3. Ill. Handb. 41 fig., 42. 1867 Cerise Walpurgis- 4. Mas Le Verger 8:,57, 158, fig. 77- 1866-73 This variety is a seedling from the village of Walpurgisburg, near Cologne, Germany, originating about 1845. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit attached in pairs, very large, roundish-cordate, compressed; suture shallow, extending entirely around the fruit; stem slender, rather long; cavity wide, shallow, sides only slightly raised; skin firrn, adherent, glossy, dark cherry-red changing to almost black; flesh firm, dark red, juicy, aromatic, vinous; pit of medium size, oval, dark red; ripens late in July.

Bigarreau de Zeisberg. P.avium. 31. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 190. 1876.
Zeisbergische Kirsche. 2. Ill. Handb. 31 fig., 32. 1867.  Cerise de Zeisberg- 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:35, 36, fig. 18. 1882.
Oberdieck received this variety, which bears the name of its originator, from Hanover, Prussia, Germany, in 1857- Fruit very large, obtuse-cordate; suture wide, flat on the dorsal side, extending slightly beyond the apex; stem long, rather slender, set in a flaring cavity; skin glossy, brownish-black, later becoming black, adhering to the pulp; flesh firm, dark red, juicy, pleasant, with an aromatic sweetness when mature; season the last of June.

Bigarreau Zschedowitzer Schwarze. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 23. 1876, Listed in the reference given.

Bigarreautier a Petit Fruit Noir. P. avium. 1. Noisette Man. Camp. Jard. 2:503. 1860. A mediocre but productive cherry ripening in August.

Bigarreautier a Petit Fruit Rose. P. avium. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:5031560,
A variety raised from seed in 1824; tree vigorous; stem long; flesh tender, white, sugary; quality fair; July.

Bill and Coo. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 454. 1869.
Two lovers made the original tree their haunt, hence, the name "Bill and Coo."This variety originated on the grounds of Professor J.P.Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio. Fruit of medium size, regular heart-shaped, flattened at the apex; stem long, slender; cavity deep; suture broad on one side, the opposite side knobby; color amber-yellow, marbled with clear red; flesh rich, delicate, sweet; ripens early in June.

Bismarck. P. avium. 1. Hoopes, Bro. & Thomas Cat. 20. 1907.
This variety is a Sweet Cherry from near Baltimore, Maryland. Fruit very large, dark red, firm, sweet, juicy and rich; vigorous and productive; ripens the first of July.

Black American. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 47. 1831. Listed without description in this reference.

Black Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:35, 37, 38. 1771. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:130. 1832.
Bigarreau hatif- 3. Le Bond Jard- 345. 1882.
Bigarreau noir Hatif- 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 285. 1884.
Black Bigarreau is an old variety of unknown origin quite distinct from any others of its class. Tree productive; fruit medium to large, heart-shaped, obscurely flattened; stem long; skin at first dotted with red, later becoming black, glossy; flesh firm, rather dry, with dark colored juice, breaking, sweet; not high in quality; ripens the last of June and the first of July.

Black Bigarreau of Savoy. P.avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 185 1845. 2. ibid. 256. 1857.
New Large Black Bigarreau. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 234, 235. 1841. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 185. 1845. S. Mag. Hort. 16: 538 fig., 539. 1850.
Large Black Bigarrea-m of Savoy. 6. Mag. Hort. 8:251. 1842.
Walsh Seedling. 17. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 196, 197. 1854.
Bigarreau noir de Savoie. 8. Mas Le Verger 8:33, 34, fig. 15. 1866-73.
The original tree of this variety was brought from the south of France by the father of George Walsh, Charlestown, Massachusetts. The tree came into bearing about 1840 In 1841, fruits were exhibited from trees introduced into American collections from Italy as New Large Black Bigarreau, and were thought by several people to be the Black Bigarreau of Savoy. Until 1857, all writers held these two varieties to be distinct but Downingthen declared them to be the same and on his authority we combine the two. Tree vigorous, handsome: fruit large, regular, cordate, slightly obtuse; stem long, rather stout, set in a narrow, even cavity; skin smooth, not very glossy, nearly black when mature; flesh dark purplish-red, firm, juicy, sweet, rich, slightly adherent to the stone; pit rather large; ripens the middle of July.

Black Hungarian Gean. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831.
A round, black Guigne of second quality with tender, transparent flesh; used for dessert.

Black Margaret. Species? 1. Watkins Cat. 32. 1892.  Described as a fine, black, very late, English cherry.

Black Prolific. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 55. 1831. Listed in the reference given.

Black Spanish. P. avium. 1. Rea Flora 205. 1676. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 177-180. 1819.
Schwarze oder Spaete Herzkirsche- 3. Kruenitz Enc. 60, 61. 1790.
Spanish. 4. Kendrick Am. Orch. 217. 1835.
Schwarze Spanische Knorpelkirsche. S. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:37- 1858.
Bigarreau noir d'Espagne. 6. Thomas Guide Prat. 23, 189. 1876.
This is an old variety first mentioned by the English and in all probability is of English origin. It has been greatly confused by some German writers with other black cherries but Truchsess maintains that if placed beside the Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche and the Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche mit Festem Fleische, the two with which it is most often confused, differences could be noted especially as to firmness of flesh and smallness of pit. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, compressed; suture distinct; stem slender, short; cavity small, smooth, shallow; skin dark reddish-brown changing to black, lighter along the suture; flesh more tender than in most hard-fleshed sorts, dark red, sweet; stone small, adhering before fully mature, colored; ripens early in July or earlier.  [Black Spanish in 'Cherries of Utah']

Black Turkey Heart. P. avium. 1. Watkins Cat. 32. 1892.  Fruit large, black, late; suitable for market and home use.

Blasse Johanni Kirsche. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 23. 1876.
Received by Thomas with a recommendatim from Baron Emanuel Trauttenberg of Prague.

Bocage. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Pral. 25. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 17. 1895.
This variety is said, in Guide Pratique, 1895, to be similar to Carnation, a Sour Cherry, while Thomas says it is similar to Reine Hortense, a hybrid sort.

Bohemian Queen. P. cerasus.  1. Can. Hort. 13: 104. 1890.
This variety is said to come true to seed; to be similar in fruit-characters to Ostheim, though larger and more fleshy; to be productive and a cherry of good flavor; and to succeed well in moist land.

Bon Bon. Species? :1. Childs Cat. 153 fig. 1893.
A very early, large, dark red, juicy cherry; ships well and bears regularly.

Book. Species? 1. Pa. Dept. Agr. Rpt. Pt- 1:427. 1902.
This is a local variety recommended by John Weitzel, Bethesda, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Fruit medium to large, dark red; ripens the middle of June.

Boppard. P. avium. 3c. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 415. 1899.
Boppard's Early. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:58- 1900.
Bopparder Fruehkirsche- 3. Proskauer Obstsort. 55. 1907.
Tree vigorous; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; skin glossy, dark red; flesh red, firm, juicy, sweet.

Boquet Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 78. 1800.
Amarelle Boquet. 2. ibid. 331. 1885. 3. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:110. 1900. This is one of Budd's importations of 1883, according to the third reference. It is often confused with the Boquet Amarelle of the French. The fruit resembles Early Richmond in size, shape, season and color, differing only in its flesh being more firm, its pit smaller, and the tree less productive; of no value commercially.

Boreatton. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 47. 1831. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 215. 1854.
A small, roundish-cordate, nearly black Sweet Cherry, with half-tender flesh; poor quality; ripens in mid-July.

Boughton Early Black Duke. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Lond. hort. Soc- Cat. 47. 183 1. Mentioned in the reference given.

Boulebonner Kirsche. P. avium 1. Ill. Handb. 47 fig., 48. 1867.
Bigarreau Hatif Boulbon. 2,. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:103, 104, fig. 52. 1882.
This cherry was introduced into Belgium from France some years previous to 1867 Tree not vigorous, but productive; fruit large, broadly cordate, variable in size and form, sides compressed; suture distinct, deepest near the cavity; apex slightly depressed; stem slender, usually long, set in a wide, shallow cavity; skin a glossy, rose-red color with a yellowish tinge, dotted and streaked with clear blood-red and washed with dark purplish-red; flesh yellowish-white, reddish-white under the skin, firm, juicy, rich, pleasing; stone large, oval, somewhat flattened, with a short point; partially clinging; ripens the last of June and, according to Oberdieck, hangs during wet seasons without cracking.

Bount Dantzic. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 47. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

Bouquet-Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:231858. 2. Ill. Handb. 7 fig., 8. 1867.
The tree of this variety has the growth of a Sweet Cherry with small, black, Heart fruits borne like the cluster cherries, one, two, three and four on the stem. The single fruits are roundish-cordate, with flattened ends while the double and triple fruits are more narrow and elongated; the fruit matures unevenly, having green, red and black fruits at the same time; pit roundish-oval, slightly pointed at the base, somewhat larger in the double fruits.

Bouquetweichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Woerterb. 291. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 519, 520, 521. 1819.
This cherry was received by Truchsess in 1796 from Mayer under the name Bouquet kirsche. Many of the flowers have six, seven, eight, and occasionally as high as twelve petals, with two or three pistils. Fruit usually very small, attached to a long, stiff, woody stem shallowly inserted; round, flattened beneath; suture shallow; flesh and juice reddish-black, with a bitterish-sour flavor, which it loses if allowed to remain on the tree; pit of medium size.

Boussieuer Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort- 55. 1907.
A variegated Sweet Cherry.

Bowers' Seedlings. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:64. 1903.
Three seedlings originated with John Bowers, Sigourney, Iowa. No. 1.Fruit medium, dark red; juice colorless; quality fair. No. 2.-Tree hardy; bears regularly; fruit large, oblate, roundish; -tem long, slender; skin dark red; juice colorless; fair in quality; late. No. 3.- Fruit large, red to dark red; juice slightly colored, mild subacid; of very good quality.

Bowyer Early Heart. P.avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 47. 1831. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 234. 1841. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:15, 16, fig. 8. 1882.
Boyer's Early. 4. Hooper W. Fr. Book 269. 1857- 5. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 665, 1897.
Robert's Red. 6. Hooper W. Fr. Book 269. 1857.
This variety probably originated in England nearly a century ago. Some writers confuse it with Early White Heart but the two are undoubtedly distinct. Tree vigorous, round-topped, hardy, productive; fruit medium in size, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity shallow, wide; suture distinct; stem variable in length; skin of medium thickness, pale amber-yellow overspread with light red; flesh whitish, tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly, refreshing; very good in quality; stone of medium size, short-ovate, plump, blunt at the apex; season early.

Boyd Early Black. Species? 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 138- 1881.
Mentioned in a report from Ohio as a variety of great superiority and value.

Brandon. P. pumila. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 353. 1896.
A prolific seedling of Prunus pumila; introduced by the Manitoba Station.

Brandywine. P. avium XP. cerasus. 1. Horticulturist N.S. 5:492, P1. 1855. Downing Fr. Trees AM. 258. 1857.
John R. Brinckle, Wilmington, Delaware, produced this variety from a seed of White Bigarreaugrown near May Duke. It fruited for the first time in 1951. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long, slender; cavity shallow, small; skin yellowish, mottled and marbled with light crimson, glossy; flesh semi-transparent, tender, very juicy, sprightly, acidulous; stone rather large; season the last of June; recommended for culinary uses.

Brant. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19: 167, 168. 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 191 fig. 1854 3. Downing Fr. Trees AM. 258. 1857.
Brant was grown by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, about the middle of the Nineteerith Century, from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree vigorous, spreading; fruit large, roundish-cordate, uneven, sides slightly compressed; stem medium, set in an angular cavity; skin thin, lively purplish-red changing to dark purplish; flesh dark purplish-red with indistinct white lines radiating from the center, tender, with abundant, colored juice, sweet and richly flavored; pit medium in size, roundish-oval, nearly smooth; season from the middle of June to the first of July.

Brassington. P. cerasus. 1. Call Cat. 5, fig. 19l3.
A chance seedling found in Oceana County, Michigan. Fruit large, dark red, sprightly subacid; ripens with Early Richmond; productive.

Braunauer Glaskirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 168. 1825.
Braunauer Amarelle. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:72. 1858.
This variety originated about 1825. Tree large, moderately productive, with large, Sour Cherry leaves. Often classed as an Amarelle because of the resemblance in the branches. Fruit very large, round, compressed; suture distinct; stem very long, shallowly inserted; color dark red, rather cloudy; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, pleasing subacid when fully ripe; stone of medium size; ripens in August.

Braune Soodkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Woerterb. 287. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 583, 584, 585. 1819.
Tree of medium growth; branches drooping; fruit large to very large, flattened, slightly depressed; stem long, set in a rather deep cavity; skin brownish-red; flesh dark red at the stone becoming clear red beneath the skin, tender, with abundant, red juice, pleasing subacid; stone roundish-elongated, one-half an inch long; season the last of July.

Braune Spanische Kirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Woerterb. 275. 1802. Spaete braune Spanische Herzkirsche. 2. Christ Handb. 660. 1797.
Braune Spanische Herzkirsche- 3. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3: 2 2. 1858.
This cherry differs from the black Hearts in being smaller, more compressed and sweeter, the flesh softer and more melting. Tree small, productive; fruit small, roundish, compressed in both sides; black, somewhat red on one side; ripens at the end of June,

Braunrote Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 544, 545. 1819.
Braune rothe Sauerkirsche. 2. Christ Woerterb. 289. 1802.
Griotte rouge fonce. 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:306. 1866.
This variety was found in Bemburg, Prussia, Germany. It is distinguished from the other Sour Cherries ripening with it by its lingering brownish-red color, its pleasing, mild sourness, its tender flesh, and by its wood. Tree not large, making a close growth, productive; branches erect; fruit bunch-like, large, almost round, flattened at the ends, sides slightly compressed; stem long, stout, inserted in a rather wide, deep cavity; color remains brownish-red for quite a period, later becoming almost black; flesh tender, with abundant, colored juice, pleasingly sour; stone egg-shaped, almost oval; season the last of July.

Briggs Sweet. P. avium. 1. Green-River Nur Cat. 22. 1899.
Briggs Sweet was raised from seed in the garden of Dr. J.A. Briggs, South Union, Kentucky, where it has fruited for twenty years. The tree is thrifty, a regular bearer and resembles Woodin appearance of both tree and fruit but is much hardier.

Brindilles. P. cerasus. 11. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 424. 1903.
This is a vigorous cherry with a low, slender habit of growth, blooming the middle of June and ripening late in August. Fruit of medium size, round, depressed or oblate; stem long, set in a narrow cavitv; skin light, clear red; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly.

Brown Best. P. cerasus. 1. Brown Bros. Cat 24. 1900.
Brown Best was introduced some twenty-five years ago by Brown Brothers, Rochester, New York, having been budded from an old tree. Fruit large, dark red, tender, sour, rich; quality good; very late; productive.

Brown Seedling. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 214. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 457. 1869.
Originated in Connecticut. Tree vigorous, upright; fruit medium in size, obtuse-cordate, compressed with a line and a light suture; cavity broad ; skin whitish, shaded and mottled with red; flesh half-tender, juicy, sweet; quality fair; season early July.

Buckatzsch Weisse Herzkirsche. P.avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 277, 278, 677, 678. 1819.
A medium-sized cherry of fair quality from Guben, Prussia, Germany, where it first fruited in 1816.

Buckatzsch Weisse Knorpelksche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 341, 685. 1819.
This is another seedling from Prussia, Germany; stem of medium length; flesh somewhat tender and light.

Budd No. 533. P. cerasus. 1. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:14. 1910.
This is probably a Russian seedling sent out by Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, Iowa. Tree small, round-topped, with slender, recumbent branches; foliage scant, mostly on the tips of the branches; fruit very large, roundish heart-shaped; stem short, thick; skin tough, thin, dark, mottled red; flesh firm, yellow, slightly stained with red, astringent, subacid; quality fair; stone large, round; season the last of July.

Buffalo. P. avium. 1. Gard. Mon. 13:150. 1871.
This cherry was received from Buffalo, New York, by Smiley Shepard of Hennepen, Illinois, in the "fifties."The fruit with him proved very hardy and productive and promised to become a valuable sweet variety for prairie orchards. Mr. Shepard sent cions to different localities for testing but nothing has been heard further about the variety.

Bunte Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 19:5511892. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:273. 1903.
This is not a Morello, though grown in North Silesia under this name. Tree vigorous and hardy, but a late bloomer; fruit large, cordate, reddish; flesh light-colored, juicy.

Burbank. P. avium. 1. Burbank Cal. 4, 19. 1911.
Burbank Early. 2. Leonard Coates Cat. 1911.
This is another of Burbank's cherries, trees of which have not yet fruited at the Station. Trees described as vigorous, sure croppers; foliage very large; fruit very large, attractive deep crimson; season very early. Its large leaves, it is claimed, protect the fruit from the birds and from cracking during late spring rains.  [Burbank in 'Cherries of Utah']

Burchardts Schwarze Rosenobel. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 166, 167, 1819. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:91, 92, fig. 46. 1882.
This cherry was raised by the German pomologist Burchardt from a seed of Rosenobel. Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; stem medium in length, set in a deep, straight cavity; skin purple, changing to almost black; flesh purple, rather tender, juice slightly colored, sweet; first quality; season the first of June.

Burghley Park. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Flor. & Pom. 229, 230. 1870. 2. Gard. Chron. 1057. 1870.
Burghley Park is a seedling, raised by R. Gilbert, Burghley Park, Stanford, England; it was placed on the list of new fruits of the Royal Horticultural Society in July, 1871. There is a question as to whether it is distinct, some believing it to be Reine Hortense. Fruit very large, usually oval, often flattened, with an obscure suture; stem long, rather slender; skin very thin, transparent, a brilliant dark red if left hanging; flesh dull yellowish-red, veined or netted, very juicy, melting, with a pleasing astringency; ripens in mid-season.

Burr. P. avium. 1. Cole Am. Fr. Book 233. 1849. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 342. 1889.
Semis de Burr. 3. Mas Le Verger 8: 163, 164, fig. 80. 1866-73.
Burr originated about 1844, with Zera Burr, of Perrinton, New York. Tree vigorous, erect, round-topped, very productive, not always hardy; fruit medium to large, obtuse-cordate with a pointed apex; stem long, slender; skin thin, mottled with light and dark red; flesh whitish, rather tender, juicy, spiightly, agreeably sweet; very good in quality; stone small, irregularly ovate, short, thick; ripens in early mid-season.

Buettner Gelbe Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort361, 362, 363. 1819. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:129, 130 fig. 31. 1866. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:214 fig., 215. 1877.
Buettner's Yellow. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 185. 1845. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 20 1875.
Wacksknorpelkirsche. 6. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:44, 45. 1858-
Buettner, at Halle, Prussia, Germany, raised this cherry as a seedling and it is probably superior to any of the varieties originated by this horticulturist. It fruited for the first time about 1800 and was introduced shortly after. It was grown in America as Buettner's Yellow in the first half of the Nineteenth Century and was listed in the American Pomological Society's fruit catalog in 1875 but was dropped in 1890. Tree strong, vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, flattened at the base; suture indistinct; stem thick, inserted in a broad, shallow cavity; skin firm, thick, pale yellow, slightly spotted with brownish-red; flesh pale yellow, firm, breaking, juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a rich, lively flavor; quality good; stone small, roundish-ovate, free; ripens early in July.

Buettner Rothe Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 236, 237. 1819.
Buettner's rothe Molkenkirshe. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:29. 1858-
Another seedling raised by Buettner about 1797 and later tested by Truchsess. Tree vigorous, very productive; fruit of medium size, heart-shaped, with sides somewhat compressed; stem long; skin yellowish-white mingled with clear red, sometimes dark red; flesh yellowish-white, very soft, juicy, sweet; quality fair; stone small, heart-shaped; matures the first half of July.

Buettner Rothe Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 290, 300, 301. 1819.
Buettner's rothe Marmorkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:43. 1858.
Bigarreau rouge de Buttner- 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:132. 1866- 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:240 fig., 241. 1877.
Grown from seed about 1795, by Buettner. Buettner Spaete Rote, one of Buettner's seedlings is similar to this one. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a shallow suture; skin thick, Evenly red on one side and shaded with carmine on the other; flesh yellowish, firm, breaking, strongly adhering to the pit, sweet, aromatic; quality good; stone of medium size, round; matures the last of June or the first of July.

Buettner Schwarze Herzkirsche.P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 122, 123, 124. 1819. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 204, 205. 1854. 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:64 fig. 65, 66. 1866. Buettner's schwarze neue Herzkirsche- 4. Christ Woerterb.275. 1802.
Bigarreau Noir Buettner. 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:222 fig. 1877.
Still another variety obtained from seed by Buettner in 1795. With several others it was sent to Truchsess, about 1801, for testing. Tree strong, vigorous, erect, hardy, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, compressed; suture prominent; stem of medium length, set in a deep cavity; skin firm, glossy, deep reddish-black; flesh dark red, moderately firm, juicy, sweet and pleasant; quality good; stone of medium size, roundish-oval; ripens early in July,

Buettner Schwarze Sauerkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 601, 602, 603. 1819.
Buettner's schwarze -neue Sauerkirsche. 2. Christ Woerterb. 289. 1802.
Raised frcnn seed by Buettner and sent to Truchsess for testing about 1797. Fruit round, of medium size, glossy, black; flesh firm, red, moderately juicy, agreeably acid; quality fair; ripens in August.

Buettner Spaete Rothe Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 329, 330, 682, 683. 1819.
Buettner's harte Marmorkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:43. 1858-
Bigarreau Rouge Tardif de Buettner- 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:11, 12, fig. 6. 1882.
Buettner's Late Red. 4. Can.Exp.Farm.Bul.2ndser-3:59. 1900.
Another seedling raised by Buettner early in the Nineteenth Century and quite similar to Buettner Rote, except in its time of ripening, which is later. Tree of medium vigor, erect; fruit large, heart-shaped, flattened at the base, compressed at the apex; suture medium in depth; skin thick and firm, yellowish-white mingled with red, changing to dark red; flesh yellowish, firm, breaking, sweet, aromatic, with abundant, uncolored juice; quality good; stone large, oval, slightly clinging to the flesh; matures the last of July.

Buettner Spaete Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Ill. Handb. 531 fig., 532. 1861.
Buettner's September und October Weichsel. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 609. 1819.
Buettner's October ZuckerWeichsel. 3.Lond.Hort.Soc.Cat-47- 1831.
Buettner's Sehrspaete- 4.ibid.47- 1831.
Buettner's October Morello. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 193, 194. 1845. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862.
Griotte Tardive de Buettner- 7. Mas Le Verger 8:95, 96, fig. 46. 1866-73.
Bigarreast Tardif Buettner. 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:245 fig., 246. 1877.
Buettner's October. 9. Hogg Fruit Man. 288. 1884.
Produced from seed about 1800, by Buettner. As one of the latest of all cherries, it was at one time considered of value for culinary purposes and for a time was grown to a limited extent in this country. The American Pomological Society placed it on its fruit catalog list in 1862 but dropped it in 1869. Tree hardy, productive; fruit often hangs to the tree till October, large, round, somewhat oblate; suture indistinct; apex dcpressed; stem long, slender; cavity shallow; skin thin but firm, reddish-brown, separating easily from the pulp; flesh light red, reticulated with whitish fibers, firm, breaking, juicy, sweet, rich, mingled with pleasant subacid; quality good; stone large, oval, semi-clinging; ripens the last of August and early September.

Byrnville. Species? 1.Mas Pom.Gen.11:160. 1882.  Listed in this reference.

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Cameleon. Species? 1. Parkinson Par. Ter- 574. 1629.
A strange cherry, changeable in color, spoken of by Parkinson because of its peculiarities. The fruit is very red in color and of good taste, but varies greatly in color, shape and arrangement. It also bears blossoms, green and ripe fruit at the same time.

Cardinalskirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Obstbaeume 159. 1791. 2. Christ Woerterb. 284. 1802.
A cherry similar to the Doctorkirschein both tree- and fruit-characters; fruit dark brown, with a subacid flavor.

Carmine Stripe. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 206. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 258. 1857.
Cerise Carminee. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:23, 24, fig. 12. 1882.
Carmine Stripe is a seedling from Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree vigorous, spreading, very productive; fruit above medium in size, heart-shaped, compressed on the sides, surface often uneven, with a suture on one side, followed by a line of carmine; stem variable; skin amber-yellow, shaded and mottled with bright, lively carmine; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, with agreeable sprightliness; pit small; season the last of June.

Caroline. P. avium. 31. Elliott Fr. Book 206. 1854.
Originated by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree upright-spreading, vigorous; fruit above medium in size, roundish-oblong, one side slightly compressed; color pale amber, mottled with clear, light red, beconiing rich red in the sun; flesh tinged with pale red, translucent, tender, juicy, sweet; pit of medium size, oblong, oval; season the last of June. Delicious for dessert.

Catskill. Species? 1. Chase Cat. 1888.
This variety, sent out by R.G. Chase, Geneva, New York, in 1889, is probably now extinct. Fruit of medium size, heart-shaped; skin light yellow, nearly covered with light carmine; stem slender, long; flesh light yellow, juicy, sprightly, mild subacid; good.

Cerise Albanes. Species? 1. Rev. Hort. 284. 1861.
Introduced from Revel, Haute-Garonne, France. It is a fruit of first size, excellent quality, with dark green leaves, productive; fruit white with more or less yellow.

Cerise d'Angleterre Precoce. Species? 1. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2:No. 25, P1. 1846.
According to Poiteau, this cherry, sometirnes called Cerise Nouvelle d'Angleterre, was confused by Duhamel with his Cerise Guigne. Fruit small in the first stages of ripening, later becoming larger, flattened at the base and apex; color clear red changing to alrnost black at complete maturity.

Cerise de l'Ardeche. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 25. 1876.
Belle grosse l'Ardeche. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 59. 1882.
Schoene von Ardeche. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 376. 1889.
Distinct from other varieties in its manner of growth, according to Thomas.

Cerise Bellon. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Cerise de la Besnardiere. P. cerasus. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 181. 1866. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 172 fig. 1877.
Kirsche von Benardiere. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 334. 1880.
In 1841, Leroy mentioned this variety in his catalog stating that it was found in the gardens of the Baron of Besnardiere. Mortillet believed it to be Carnation not being convinced of the contrary until after he had published his description of the Carnation. Tree strong, moderately productive; fruit attached singly, large, globular, compressed at the ends; suture apparent; stem of medium length, inserted in a rather wide, deep cavity; skin clear red, brilliant; flesh reddish at the surface, whitish near the center, tender, with abundant, slightly colored juice, pleasantly acidulated and sweet; first quality; stone small, round, plump; season the end of June in France.

Cerise du Bicentenaire. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Rev. Hort. 284, 285, P1. 1903.
Bicentenaireweichse1. 2. Proskauer Obstsort- 58. 1907.
This variety is supposed to be a bud variation of Royal Duke found in a garden at Lieusaint, France. The trees resemble those of Royal Duke but the fruit is superior in size and ripens from three weeks to a month later. Said to be valuable on northern exposures which increase the advantages of late maturity.

Cerise Blanche a Petit Fruit. P. avium. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:507. 1860. Similar to the Cerisier a Gros Fruit Blanc but smaller.

Cerise Commune. P. cerasus. 1. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2:No. 11, P1. 1846. 2. Le Bon Jard. 346. 1882.
One of the French varieties of cherries grown in the neighborhood of Paris to supply the early market trade. Sometimes called La Grosse Cerise Conitnune.

Cerise a Cotes. P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:258, 259 fig. 1877.
This cherry is similar in tree and fruit to Large Montmorency but the fruit is traversed on both sides by a prominent suture. Fruit attached in threes, of medium size, globular, compressed at the ends; suture deep, cornpletely encircling the fruit; stem variable in length, inserted in a large, deep cavity; apex slightly depressed; skin clear red; flesh yellow ish, transparent, tender, juicy, sugary, acidulated; pit of medium size, round; second quality; season the end of June; moderately productive.

Cerise d'Espagne. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 25. 1876.
Fruit large, deep red, delicious, acidulated, ripening from June to July.

Cerise a la Feuille. P. cerasus. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 174, 175. 1768.
The fruit is of medium size- roundish-cordate, faces flattened; stem long; cavity deep and straight; skin deep reddish-brown; flesh red, with an acid flavor which it loses some what at complete maturity; stone large, lightly tinted; ripens the middle of July.

Cerise de Gembloux. P. avium. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 8:91, Pl. 1860.
M. Staquet Berger of Gembloux, Belgium, grew this cherry from seed. Tree productive, vigorous; fruit large, roundish, slightly cordate; suture pronounced; stem long, slender; skin thin, glossy, nearly black; flesh red, fine, melting, juicy, sugary, acidulated; stone small, oval; ripens the last of July.

Cerise Guigne. P. avium. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 195, 196, P1. 16 fig. 1. 1768. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:140, 141 fig. 34, 142. 1866. 3. Mas Le Verger 8:159, 160, fig. 78. 1866-73. 4. Leroy Dict. POM. 5:254, 255 fig., 256. 1877. Griotte Guigne. 5. Prince Pom. Man.2:149- 1832.
Cerise Anglaise. 6. Poiteau Pom. Franc.2:No.26,Pl. 1846.
Rothe Muskateller. 7. Ill. Handb.159fig.,160. 1860.
This cherry is now of historical interest only. It has been called Cerise Guigne since Duhamel described it in 1768, and may be the variety known long ago by the Romans as Cecilienne. There is no record to show that Cerise Guigne was ever brought to America. Tree large, vigorous, productive; fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, flattened at the base; suture distinct; stem of medium thickness and length; skin thin; color clear red becoming reddish-brown; fiesh clear red, with abundant, colored juice, tender, slightly stringy, sweet, sprightly, agreeable; quality good; ripens early.

Cerise de Mai Double. Species? 1. Knoop Fructologie2:36,40. 1771. Briefly discussed by Knoop.

Cerise de Mai Simple. Species? 1.Knoop Fructologie 2:36,40,41. 1771.  Resembles Cerise de Mai Double but smaller.

Cerise de Martigne. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:147. 1882. The tree-characters are briefly described in this reference.

Cerise de Ostheim. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 78. 1890.
Ostheim. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:79, fig. 18. 1903.
In 1883, Professor J.L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, brought this variety to Iowa. It is very similar to the Minnesota Ostheim but a few days later. Fruit of medium size, round, occasionally cordate; stem of medium length, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin firm, deep red, with highly colored juice, mildly subacid; quality very good.

Cerise du Prince Maurice. Species? 1.Knoop Fructologie 2:36,41. 1771. Tree vigorous, erect, productive; fruit scarlet, with whitish dots.

Cerise de Prusse. P. cerasus. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 151 fig., 152, 153, 221, 304. 1866.
Guindoux de Provence. 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 429, 430. 1819.
Prussian Cherry. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:150. 1832.
Provencer Suessweichsel 4.Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3:50. 1858.
Cerise de l'Esviere. 5.Mas Pom. Gen.11:160. 1882.
Cerise de Prusse noire? 6.ibid.311:160. 1882.
This old variety is supposed to be of French origin. It is distinguished from other sorts by its cordate form, its more or less distinct suture, its thick skin, and its heart-shaped pit. Tree vigorous, moderately productive; fruit rather large, partially cordate, marked by a suture on both sides, more pronounced towards the base; stem of mediurn length, inserted in a rather deep cavity; skin thick, tough, separating from the pulp, deep reddish, almost black; flesh rather firm, deep red, juicy, sprightly, vinous, with a pronounced acidity; stone rather large, oval-pointed, turgid; ripens early in July.

Cerise de Roueen Double. P. avium. 1.Knoop Fructologie 2:,36,42. 1771.
Tree vigorous and productive; fruit cordate, marked with a suture of moderate depth; color streaked with clear red on a yellow ground; flesh brittle, sweet, very agreeable.

Cerise de Roueen Simple. P. avium. 1.Knoop Fructologie2:42. 1771.
Resembles the preceding variety in form, color and quality but is somewhat smaller.

Cerise Rouge Pale. P. cerasus. 1. Mas Le Verger 8:89, 90, fig, 43. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:383, 384 fig., 385. 1877.
Cerisier a Gros Fruit Rouge-pale - 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 1 82, 183, 184, P1. 1768. 4. Kraft Pom. Anst- 1:5, Tab. 14 fig. 1. 1792. Villennes- 5-Prince Pom. Man.2:140. 1832. Bleich rothe Glaskirsche. 6.Ill.Handb.75fig.,76. 1867.
This cherry is of interest only because of its past. Of its origin no record can be found. It is first mentioned by Duhamel, in 1768, under a somewhat longer name, "Cerisier A Gros Fruit Rouge-pale," which many later writers have confused with Carnation. Tree large, vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish, flattened; stem long, thick; cavity deep, broad; skin thin; color a clear, brilliant red growing darker as maturity advances; flesh transparent, juicy, firm, tender, sweet, yet sprightly; of very good quality; season late.

Cerise Rouge Sanguine. Species? 1. Mas POM.Gen.11:160. 1882. Listed in this reference.

Cerise Royale Ordinaire. Species? 1. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2: No, 22, P1. 1846.
This variety is known in Normandy as Cerise Musquee because of its slight musky taste. Fruit small, sides compressed; skin red; flesh yellowish, juicy, sugary; quality fair.

Cerise de Soissons. P. cerasus. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 55. 1831.
Franzosiche Suessweichsel. 2. Dochnalil Fuehr. Obstkunde 3: 51. 1858.
Admirable de Soissons. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 476. 1869.
Cerise de Soissons is described as a Morello, medium to above in size, broadly cordate, slightly compressed, with a slight suture; stem short; skin dark red; flesh red, tender, juicy, brisk subacid; ripens the middle of July.

Cerise de Tierce. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882.  Listed without a description.

Cerise de Xavier. P. cerasus. 1. Mag. Hort. 17:3631851. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 215. 1854. A Morello cherry, first shown in 1851, by M.P.Wilder, Dorchester, Massachusetts. Fruit medium in size, round, dark red, acid.

Cerisier Commun a Fruit Rond. P. cerasus. 1. Duhamel Trait.Arb.Fr. 1:172, 173. 1768. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 658, 659. 1819.
Under this heading are grouped many wild cherries in France, grown from seeds, whose trees, leaves and flowers vary as well as the size, taste and time of ripening of the fruits. One of the best of these is grown around Paris, the fruit being small; stem long; pit large; quality and flavor variable.

Ceriser Commun Pleureur. P. cerasus. 1. Rev. hort. 397. 1888-
This cherry was found in a Sour Cherry plantation. It resembles Montmorencyin habit of growth and the Heart cherries in texture of flesh. The tree is used for ornamental planting and its fruit for culinary purposes. Tree very productive, bushy, branches inclined to droop; fruit large, oblong; stem long, inserted in a large cavity; skin glossy, dark red; flesh rose-colored, transparent, sugary, juicy; pit of medium size, elongated-oval; ripens early in June.

Cerisier a Feuilles Laciniees. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict- Pom. 5:267, 268 fig. 1877.
This is a chance seedling first mentioned by Leroy in his catalog in 1860. Because of its foliage it is often used as an ornamental. Tree strong, moderately productive; fruit generally attached singly, small, oval; suture apparent; stem long; cavity moderately large; skin clear red, marbled with reddish-brown; flesh firm, yellowish-white, with abundant, uncolored juice, sugary, slightly acidulated; pit of medium size, elongated-oval, plump.

Cerisier a Gros Fruit Blanc. P.avium. 1.NoisetteMan.Comp. Jard.2:507- 1860.
A cherry ripening in July but described as very sugary and very good; flesh watery, aromatic; productive.

Cerisier Royal Tardif a Fruit Noir. Species? 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2: 506. 1860. The fruit ripens in July, becoming deep black.

Cerisier Tres-fertile. P. cerasus. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:175, 176- 1768.
Weichselbaum mit buendelfoermigen Fruechten. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:5, Tab. 12 fig. I. 1792.
Cerise a Trochet. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 56. 193l. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:397, 398 fig. 1877.
Prolific Cherry. 5. Prince Pom. Man. 2:132. 1832.
Amarelle tres-fertile. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:201 fig., 202, 203. 1866.
Leroy states that this variety was long ago well known in France. Because it was grown in the neighborhood of Angers and Saint-Laud, and was of the Montmorency type, Leroy says it was locally named Cerisier Montmorency Hatif de Saint Laud. He is doubtful whether it existed before the Eighteenth Century; Duhamel was the first to describe it in 1768. The tree resembles the Cluster cherry and is probably but a variation of the Cerise Commune type. Tree small; fruit generally attached in threes, of medium size, globular, compressed at the stem; cavity rather deep; apex small, somewhat prominent; stem of medium size, unequal in letigth; skin transparent, clear red, deeper when mature; flesh tender, white, juicy, sugary, strongly acidulated; stone medium in size, roundish, turgid; ripens the middle of June. Its graceful habit and productiveness make it a favorite for ornamental purposes.

Cerisier de Varenne. Species? 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:507. 1860.
Belle de Varennes. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. l1:159. 1882.
Tree erect, very vigoruus; fruit large, compressed; stem long; color bright red.

Challenge. P.pumila. 1.Can. Exp. Farms Rpt-353. 1896.
Challenge is a Sand Cherry seedling; grown in Canada; fair flavor and of medium size.

Champagne. Species? 1. Horticulturist 5:76, 77 fig. 1850. 2. Elliott Fr. BOOK 205. 1854 Champagne is a seedling raised by Charles Downing, Newburgh, New York, and so named because of the peculiar and lively mingling of sweet and acid in its flavor. Tree very hardy, vigorous, bearing regularly, and withstanding the attacks of rot and blight. Fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, slightly angular; stem moderately long; cavity shallow, flat; skin lively brick-red, inclining to pink; flesh amber, juicy, sprightly, rich; ripens the middle of June.

Champion. P. pumila. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 307. 1899.
Champion is one of many scedlings of the Manitoba Sand, a native Canadian cherry named and described in 1899, by Wm. Saunders of the Canadian Experimental Farms. Fruit large, very dark red, nearly black when ripe; flesh sweet, nearly free from astringency, quality good; ripens in Manitoba the last of August.

Chapman. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 1301897. 2. Cal. Nur. Cat. 1: 14. 1898.
3. Ore. Nur. Cat. 21. 1903. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1909.
Chapman was grown by W.H. Chapman of Napa, California, and is supposed to be a seedling of Black Tartarian, surpassing that variety in size and earliness. By some horticulturists Chapman and California Advance are considered identical, but most growers, particularly in California, declare the two to be distinct. Fruit matures early; very large, roundish, purplish-black; stem long, slender; flesh slightly tender; very good in quality; stone small.   [Chapman in 'Cherries of Utah']

Cheresoto. P. pumila XP.americana. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul 130:184, P1. 10, Pl. 11, 185. 1911.  Cheresoto is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the De Soto plum from the South Dakota Experiment Station. The tree resembles the plum in growth but the fruit, in looks and flavor, is like that of the Sand Cherry. Fruit rather long with a prickle at the apex; about one and three-eighths inches in diameter; skin black with a bluish bloom, thin, free from acerbity; flesh yellowish-green, sprightly; pit clinging.

China Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:126- 1832.
China Heart. 2. Prince Treat. Hort. 30. 1828. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 48. 1831.
This variety was raised from the seed of an Ox Heart by William Prince, Flushing, New York, and at first was called China Heart. W.R. Prince in his Pomological Manual of 1832, calls it China Bigarreau as it is more of the Bigarreau than of the Heart type of cherries. Tree vigorous, large; fruit medium in size, roundish or oval-cordate, with a distinct suture; stem long, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin when fully ripe, glossy red mottled with lighter red; flesh firm, somewhat melting, with a sweet, rich, peculiar flavor; ripens just after Black Tartarian and forms a link between it and the later varieties; very productive.

Choque. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat- 15, 191. 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 141, 142. 1882.
Guigne Choque- 3. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 482. 1904.
Originated near Metz, Lorraine, Germany. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit rather large; of a deep red color at maturity; flesh white, slightly tinted with a rose color, firm, very juicy, sweet; ripens the last of June.

Christbauer. P. cerasus. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 42. 1892. A sort reported to ripen before Early Richmond.

Christiana. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Elliott Fr. BOOK 206. 1854.
This variety was raised by B.B. Kirtland, Greenbush, New York, and resembles May Duke in character of tree and fruit. The fruit is borne in clusters, is of a bright, livcly red color, and has a sprightly subacid flavor.

Churchill Heart. P. avium. 1. Lond- Hort. Soc. Cal. 48. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 290. 1884.
Tree hardy, productive; fruit large, heart-shaped; stem long; cavity shallow; skin glossy, of a clear, waxen, pale yellow, bright red when exposed to the sun, mottled with dark red and orange; flesh pale yellow, firm, sweet, rich, moderately juicy; season the end of July.

Cistena. P.pumila X P.pissardi. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 130: 190, 191. 1911.
Cistena is a cross bctween the Sand Cherry and Prunus pissardi, interesting only because of its beautiful purple foliage.

Clark September. P. avium. 1. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 22:XVII1. 1890.
Clark September is a local sort from Lower Granville, Nova Scotia. The fruits are of medium size and when fully ripe are of a dark red color; flesh firm, of a sweet and agreeable flavor.

Cluster Black Heart. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farnm Rpt- 481. 1904.
Tree vigorous; fruit small or of medium size, cordate; stem long; skin glossy, black; flesh very dark red, tender, juicy, agreeably mild acid; ripens in July.

Cocklin Favorite. P. avium. 1. Gard. Man. 3:249 fig., 1861. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 458. 1869.
LateAmber- 3. Horticulturist l7:381. 1862.
This seedling was introduced by E.H. Cocklin, Shepherdstown, Pennsylvania, but its origin is unknown. Tree upright, conical, very productive; fruit large, roundish, regular, slightly compressed, somewhat flattened at the base, almost without a suture; apex depressed; stem long, slender; cavity deep; skin yellowish shaded and mottled in the sun with a light crimson; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, vinous; quality good; stone very small for the size of the fruit; season late.

Coe Late Carnation. P. cerasus. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 216. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 275. 1857.
Coe's Spaete Rote Kirsche- 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 343, 344. 1889.
This is a late variety of unknown origin - possibly a seedling of Carnation. Fruit medium to large, cordate; suture shallow; color yellowish-amber mottled with clear red; flesh tender, juicy, subacid; quality fair; season the last of July.

Coeur de Pigeon Noir. Species? 1.Mas Pom. Gen. l1:148- 1882.
Fruit of mediuln size, cordate, slightly elongated.

Coeur de Poule. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:124. 1832.
Gros Bigarreau coeur-de-Poule 2. Rev. Hort. 65. 1881.
According to Prince, this variety was rather extensively cultivated in the south of France especially in the vicinity of Toulouse, where it was known as Cor de Galino. The fruit ripens in July, has the form of the Hearts; its vivid red changes to nearly black as does also the juice.

Cole. P. cerasus.
Cole is a rather small-sized Morello of little value and no doubt now out of cultivation. Fruit cordate, compressed along the sutures; stem long, slender, set in a wide cavity; skin nearly black; flesh tender, rather meaty, dark red, lighter near the pit, having abundant, wine-colored juice, sour, sprightly; stone clings; season late.

Columbia. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 450. 1869.
Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; fruit of medium size, heart-shaped, inclining to a point, surface and and uneven, sides compressed; suture deep, narrow; stem long, slender; cavity large, deep; skin whitish-yellow, blusbed and mottled with light red; flesh whitish, stained with pink, tender, juicy, pleasant; season the last of June.

Common Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:143, 144. 1832. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 10.3. 1852.
Wild Morello. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 54. 1831.
Common Red Morello. 4. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 144, 1886.
This variety must not be confused with the well-known English Morello. Through self-propagation, it is widely known, as are its many seedlings which oft-times surpass it in size and quality.

Como. Species? 1.Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882.  Listed in the reference given.

Comtesse de Medicis Spada. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882. Listed without a description.

Conde. Species? 1.Knoop Fructologie2:35. 1771. Mentioned in the reference given.

Conestoga. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:423. 1853. 2. Horticulturist 17:381. 1862.
Conestoga was introduced by Casper Hiller, Conestoga, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Tree a rampant, spreading grower, very productive; fruit very large, obtuse cordate, slightly compressed and indented at the apex; suture shallow; stem very long, inserted in an open cavity; skin deep red, purplish, somewhat mottled; flesh firm, rather tender, juicy, sugary, brisk; quality good; season early July.

Constance Maisin. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 25. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 17. 1895.
This is a Belgian variety, which, according to Guide Pratique, 1895, is very similar to Montmorency.

Cook Imperial. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 25. 1904-05.
This variety, a seedling of Napoleon, originated with Steven Cook, Denton Harbor, Michigan. It is mentioned as a promising new sort, resernbling Black Tartarianin shape, flavor, color, and length of stem but earlier and larger.

Cornelia. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 459. 1869.
Cornelia originated with Charles Pease, near Cleveland, Ohio. Tree vigorous, upright spreading, very productive; fruit medium to above in size, compressed, heart-shaped; suture slight; stem long; cavity narrow, deep; skin whitish-yellow, shaded with bright crimson on the sunny side; flesh light yellow, tender, juicy, sweet, rather lively; quality good; stone small; season the last of June.

Corning. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 72. 1899. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:66 fig. 1903.
Corning is a cross between the Wragg and Lutovka and originated with A.F. Collman, Corning, Iowa. Fruit oblate-cordate, above medium in size; suture lacking; stem of medium length, stout, inserted in a medium deep, narrow cavity; skin rather thick, tender, red; flesh firm, breaking; juice slightly colored, briskly subacid; quality good; stone medium large, ovate; ripens in August.

Corone. P. avium. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter 572. 1629. 2. Rea Flora 205. 1676. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 291. 1884.
Englische Schwarze Kronherzkirsche. 4. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 149-152. 1819. 5. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 347. 1889.
Corone, as the references show, is one of the oldest-named varieties, though strictly speaking, since it was largely grown from seed, according to the old writers, it is a type and not a variety. In character of fruit it seems to be midway between Black Mazzard and Black Tartarian. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit below medium in size, roundish-cordate, compressed and often roughened; suture deep; stem slender, long; cavitv deep, round, narrow; color a deep, shining black; flesh dark purple, very firm, sweet; ripens late.

Corwin. P. cerasus. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 216. 1854.
This is a medium-sized, roundish, red Morello with tender, acid flesh and a large stone; season July.

Coularde. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 424-427. 1819.
Cerisier de Hollande. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 184, 185, Pl. 10. 1768. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:298, 346. 1877. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 363. 1889.
Hollaendische Weichselbaum mit sehr grosser Frucht [or] Coulard. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:5, Tab. 12 fig. 2. 1792.
Hollaendische grosse Kirsche Coulard- 6. Christ Handb. 670. 1797.
Hollaendische grosse Weichsel [or] Coulard. 7. Christ Woerterb. 284. 1802.
Holland Griotte. 8. Prince Pom. Man. 2:141. 1832. 9. Kenrick Am. Orch. 280. 1832.
Hollaendische Suessweichsel. 10. Dochnahl Fuehr. Obstkunde 3: 51. 1858.
Cerisier coulard de Holland. 11. Noisette Man. Comp. jard. 2:505. 1860.
Leroy states that Coularde has been known since 1740 but is often confused with other cherries. According to Leroy, this variety was reintroduced as a novelty about 1864, under the name Belle d'Orleans. American writers, however, list a Belle d'Orleans as early as 1850, which is of the Guigne type rather than the Griotte. Tree the largest of its class; branches strong and straight; blooms profusely; fruit large, round; skin red; flesh firm, reddish-whitc, sweet, agreeable; ripens the end of June. The pistils being much longer than the stamens, many flowers are never fertilized which gives the blossoms a blighted appearance.

Courte-queue de Gaiberg. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 23, 192. 1876.
Courte-pendu de Gaiberg. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882. Listed as having been received from Germany on the recommendation of Oberdieck.

Crawford. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. Ill: 160. 1882. Listed, not described.

Crown Prince. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 465. 1900.
Tree vigorous; fruit above medium in size, cordate; skin yellow with a light red blush; flesh whitish, juicy, tender, refreshing; quality good; ripens the last of May.

Cserszeger Honigkirsche. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort- 55. 1907.  A yellow Heartcherry.

Cullen Cherrie. P. cerasus. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 574. 1629.
"The Cullen Cherrie is a darke red cherrie like the Agriot, which they of those parts neere Cullen and Vtrecht &c. vse to put into their drinke, to give it the deeper colour. "

Cumberland. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. BOOK 205. 1854.
Triumph of Cumberland. 2. Horticulturist 7:100. 1852. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 267, 268. 1857. 4. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:87, 88, fig. 44. 1882.
Cumberland Heart. 5. Gard. Man. 2:118. 1860.
Cumberland Spice. 6. Horticulturist 17:498- 1862.
Cumberland is a chance seedling found in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania; introduced by David Miller of Carlisle. Tree strong in growth, erect, vigorous, productive; fruit obtuse-cordate, sides compressed; stem rather long, slender, set in a broad, open cavity; apex slightly depressed; suture entirely around the fruit, but a line on one side; skin medium thick, tough, clear purple changing to a purplish-black; flesh deep purple, crisp, aromatic, with abundant, colored juice; quality good; pit roundish-oval, compressed, slightly clinging; ripens the middle of June.

Cyclone. P. avium. 1. Nova Scotia Fr, Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 23. 1894.
This variety is said in Nova Scotia to be somewhat similar to WoodandRockport but to be superior to either in size and quality.

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Dacotah. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 26:402, 403. 1860. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 459. 1869. Dacotah is a seedling of one of Professor J.P. Kirtland's sorts, originated by his son-in-law, Charles Pease, Cleveland, Ohio. In growth it resembles Rockport; in fruit, Black Tartarianalthough it is later. The fruit is borne on spurs on the body as well as on the limbs, thus being protected from birds by the foliage. Fruit medium to large, heart-shaped, compressed; suture shallow; stem long, slender; cavity deep, narrow; skin rich dark red, almost black, slightly roughened; flesh rather tender, purplish, juicy, sweet; of high quality; stone of medium size; productive.

Daiber Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 344. 1889 Listed by Mathieu.

Dankelmannskirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 242-246, 677. 1819. Schwefelkirsche. 2. Krünitz Enc. 72, 73. 1790. Agatkirsche. 3. Christ Handb. 666. 1797.  Dankelmann's Weisse Herzkirsche- 4. ibid. 666. 1797. Kleine weisse Perlkirsche. 5. ibid. 683. 1797. Dankelmann's Molkenkirsche. 6. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:28. 1998. Bigarreautier à fruit jaune ? 7. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2: 504. 1960. Bigarreau jaune. 8. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:133. 1866. In 1791, Truchsess received grafts of what he thought were several distinct varieties and disseminated them as such. Later, they were found to be identical with the Dankelmann. The fruit is recognized from others of its class by its small size, its honey sweetness, its peculiar color and its transparent skin. Fruit more round than cordate, with a shallow suture; stem slender, inserted in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin yellow washed with red, transparent allowing the pit to be visible; flesh yellowish-white, tender, very juicy, very sweet if ripened thoroughly; stone small, round, almost free when ripe; season the last of June to July.

Datge. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:59- 1900. Mentioned in this reference as being moderate in growth.

Davenport. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:154. 1832. Davenport's Early Red. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 218. 1835. Davenport's Early Black. 3. ibid. 233. 1841. Davenport's Early. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 172, 173. 1845.
This early cherry, resembling somewhat Black Heart, was originated nearly a century ago by Edward Davenport, Dorchester, Massachusetts. Tree medium in size, productive; fruit above medium to large, roundish-cordate; stem long, rather thick; skin bright red becoming purplish-black; flesh firm but tender, sprightly, pleasant, juicy, sweet; very good in quality; season early.

De Belleu. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:59- 1900. Mentioned in this reference as being a variety of moderate growth.

De Jacap. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831 Mentioned in the reference given.

De Ravaene. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882. Listed without a description.

De Sibérie à gros fruit et à rameaux pendans. Species? 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:508. 1860.  This is a dwarf ornamental tree bearing small, oval, mediocre fruits ripening in August and September.

De Spa. P. cerasus. 1. Mag. Hort. 17:363. 1851. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 278. 1857.
De Spa is a medium-sized, dark red, acid Morello forming a prolific bush, ripening soon after May Duke.

De Vaux. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farm. Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:50. 1900 Listed in the reference given.

Dearborn Red French. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 280. 1832.  This is a Duke cherry imported from France by H.A. S. Dearborn, Roxbury, Massachusetts. The name having been lost, the importer renamed it.

Dechenaut. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 78. 1866.  Fruit large, roundish-cordate, broad at the base, rather flattened; suture faint; skin bright cornelian-red, becoming darker red when ripe, glossy; stem long, set in a wide, deep cavity; flesh tender, succulent; resembling May Dukein flavor and season.

Delaware Bleeding Heart. P. avium. 1. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 1898.
This is a medium-sized, dark red, nearly black fruit with solid flesh and good flavor.

Delicate. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:167, 168. 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 193 fig. 1854.
Delicate was raised by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed with Black Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. Tree moderately vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit medium to large, roundish-oblate; suture rather pronounced; stem medium in length; skin thin, translucent, amber-yellow overspread and mottled with light carmine; flesh pale yellow, juicy, pleasant, sweet; very good in quality; stone small, roundish-oval; season the last of June and the first of July.

Délicieuse. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Cen. 11:160. 1882. Listed by Mas.

Denner Black. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 48. 1831. Listed but not described.

Des Cheneaux. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. l1:160. 1892. Mentioned in the reference given.

Deutsche Belzweichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 290. 1902. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 603, 604, 605. 1819.  Probably this is but a wild seedling used in grafting. Fruit of medium size, round; suture indistinct; stem long, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin glossy, dark brown; flesh firrn, dark, recidish directly under the skin, juicy, with a sourish wine-flavor; stone small, oval; ripens the middle of July.

Disnoder Gewürzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort- 55. 1907 Listed as a black Bigarreau.

Ditst. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Dobbeete Moreller. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cal. 54. 1831 Listed in this reference.

Doctay. Species? 1. Horticulturist 17:498. 1862.
Reported in the refercnce as a good, late cherry of second size as grown by E. Manning, Harrisburg, Ohio.

Doctor. P. avium. 1. Horticulturist 2:123 fig. 1847-48. 2. Mag. Hort. 19:167, 168. 1853. 3. Mas Le Verger 8:37, 38, fig. 17. 1866-73. American Doctor. 4. Hogg Fruit Man. 71. 1866.
Doctor was originated by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed withBlack Tartarian, Black Mazzard, orMay Duke. Hogg called it American Doctor to distinguish it from the German Doctorkirsche. Tree of medium vigor, upright-spreading, healthy, very productive; fruit medium to large, round-cordate; stem long, rather slender; skin light yellow, -mottled, blushed and at times almost entirely overspread with red; flesh pale yellow, juicy, tender, aromatic, sweet; good in quality; stone small.

Dr. Flynn. P. avium. 1. Coates Cat. 1911-12.  Dr. Flynn is a chance seedling which originated in Portland, Oregon, with a Dr. Flynn. Fruit large, dark red; similar to Lambert in shape; preceding Napoleon.

Dr. Wiseman. P. avium. 1. Van Lindley Cat. 23. 1892. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 321. 1897.
This cherry was named after Dr. Wiseman, Davie County, North Carolina, who claimed it to be the earliest Sweet Cherry. Van Lindley believes it to be the Doctor which originated with Professor Kirtland. Fruit of mediurn size, light yellow, shaded with bright red, resembling Wood.

Doctorkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Obstbäume 161. 1791. 2. Christ Handb. 674. 1797. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 402-405. 1819. 4. Ill. Handb. 497 fig., 498. 1861.  This variety was first mentioned in 1791. It should not be confused with another sort mentioned by Büttner and Truchsess as Doctorknorpelkirsche. Fruit large, roundish, somewhat compressed; stem long; cavity rather deep; skin tough, brownish-red changing to reddish-black; flesh dark red, melting, juicy, sweet yet with a sprightly flavor; pit round, slightly pointed; ripens the middle of July.

Doctorknorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 201, 202, 203. 1819.  2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3: 37. 1858.  According to Truchess, this sort was received by him in 1797, from Büttner at Leipzig under the name of Doctorkirsche. Because one or two other sorts were growing at that time under this name, Christ changed this one, following Büttner's description, to Doctor kirsche mit Hartem Fleisch, which has since been shortened to Doctorknorpelkirsche. Fruit large, slightly compressed; stem long and slender; color black; flesh firm, clear red, juicy, agreeably sweet; ripens the middle of August.

Dollaner Schwarze. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 9 fig., 10. 1867.  According to Oberdieck, this variety originated at Dollan, Bohemia, Austria, the home of the Dollaner prune. Fruit above medium in size, truncate-cordate, traversed entirely by a suture; stem slender, long, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin tough, brownish-black with light spots, wholly black when ripe; flesh and juice dark red, flesh firm, but tender enough to be classed among the Hearts, sweet, aromatic, with a slight sourness before fully ripe; stone elongated-oval; season late.

Donna Maria. P. cerasus. 1. Barry Fr. Garden 326. 1851. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. 3. Am. Hort. An. 84 fig. 41, 85. 1869.  This is a Morello cherry, probably of French origin. It is distinct from theEarly May grown in the West with which it has been confused. Donna Maria held a place on the American Pomological Society's catalog of fruits from 1862 until 1899. Tree small, productive; fruit medium in size, roundish, dark red; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly; goocl in quality; season late.

Doppelte Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 673. 1797 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 505, 506, 507. 1819.
Doppelte Amarelle- 3. Christ Obstbäume 158. 1791.  Christ first described this variety as Doppelte Amarelle but in his later writings changed it to Doppelte Weichsel- It is distinguished from the Spanische Frühweichsel in being larger, longer in stem, and sourer. Fruit above mediurn in size, globular; suture shallow; stem long, rather stout, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark brownish-red, thin, not glossy in wet years; flesh dark, firm for a Weichsel, juicy, light colored. pleasing subacid; pit small, more round than broad, free; season the end of June.

Dorotheenkirsche. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 347. 1889. Mentioned in this reference.

Dörrells Neue Himbeerkirsche P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:27. 1858.  Tree productive; fruit large, ovate, flattened; stem stout; skin dark red; flesh firm, whitish, sweet, aromatic; stone small; ripens at the end of June.

Doty. Species? 1. Am. Inst. An. Rpt. 212. 1867.  This is a small but pleasantly flavored seedling exhibited by William M. Doty, Star Landing, New Jersey.

Double Yellow Spanish. P. avium. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 331. 1885.  This variety was imported to America by Professor J.L. Budd of Ames, Iowa. The tree has a drooping habit, large foliage and sweet fruit of best quality.

Douce de Bardowick. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Dougall. Species? 1. Cult. & Count. Gent. 39:454. 1874. Dougall is a large, black, seedling fruit introduced by James Dougall, Amherstburgh. Canada. Ripens before Early Purple.

Doulin Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 460. 1869.  This is a foreign variety which may not be distinct. Tree a rapid, spreading grower, bears early; fruit large, heart-shaped, compressed on one side; stem slender, curved, set in a deep cavity; suture slight; skin dark purplish-red; flesh pinkish, rather tender, juicy, sweet, pleasant; quality good; season early June.

Dove Bank. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Downing Red Cheek. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr.Trees Am.186fig.76. 1845. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 205. 1854. Rouge de Downing. 3. Mas Le Verger 8:85, 86, fig. 41. 1866-73. Downing's Seedling. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 346. 1889.  This attractive cherry, resemblingYellow Spanish, was raised byA.J. Downing, Newburgh, New York, about 1840; its exact parentage is unknown. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit medium to large, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; stem long, slender, inserted in a shallow cavity; skin thin, yellowish-white blushed and mottled with attractive dark crimson; flesh yellowish but often very nearly white, half tender, juicy, delicate, sweet; good in quality; stone medium in size; ripens from the middle to the last of June.

Downton. P. avium. 1. Pom Mag 3:139 P1. 1830. 2. Prince POM. Man. 2:124 1832. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. 4. Ill. Handb. 485 fig., 486. 1861. Downtoner Molkenkirsche. 5. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:30 1858. Guigne Downton. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:98, 303. 1866 7. Leroy. Dict. Pom. 5:321 fig. 1877. Impératrice Downton ? 8. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Downton was raised early in the Nineteenth Century by T.A. Knight, Downton Castle, England, from a seed of Elton. Tree strong in growth, spreading; fruit attached in pairs, large, obtuse-cordate, roundish; stem rather long, slender; skin pale yellowish, heavily specked with red, which oftens merges into a blush on the sunny side; flesh light yellow, very tender, juicy; high in quality; stone slightly adherent; ripens afterMay Duke.

Dresdener Mai Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 23. 1876.  A very early Heart cherry received by Thomas from Germany.

Drogan White Bigarreau. P.avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 79. 1866. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 188. 1876. Drogan's Weisse Knorpelkirsche- 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 341, 684. 1819. 4. Ill. Handb. 55 fig., 56. 1867.  This is one of Drogan's seedlings from Guben, Prague, Germany, 1909. Leroy includes Drogan's White and Yellow Bigarreaus with his Guigne Blanche (Grosse) but the three are distinct varieties. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, flattened on one side; suture distinct; stem rather short, stout; cavity wide, deep; apex pointed; skin tough, pale yellow, mottled and blushed with red where much exposed; flesh firm, pale yellow, juicy, sweet; stone plump, ovate to oval; desirable for table and kitchen use; late.

Drogan Yellow Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 147 fig., 148 1860. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 79, 80. 1866. 3. Mas Le Verger 8: 111, 112, fig. 54. 1866-73. Bigarreau (Golden)? 4. Fell Cat. 41. 1893-94.  Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large to very large, oblate-cordate, resembling May Duke, compressed on the faces, truncate at the base, traversed by a shallow suture; stem long, stout, inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin rather glossy, clear yellow, golden in the sun; flesh firm, yellowish, having abundant, uncolored juice, with a sweetness which increases as the season advances; quality high; pit small, turgid, roundish-oval, truncate at the base; ripens late.

Drogans Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 206, 207, 677. 1819.  A Prussian seedling from Guben, Germany, which in favorable years is of good size and pleasant flavor; skin black; flesh firm, juicy, colored; ripens the middle of July.

Drooping Guigne. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 119. 1832. Guignier à rameaux pendans. 2. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:503. 1860.  Noisette lists this variety under the Merisiers while others take it to be Toussaint which it resembles in habit of growth. Fruit large, roundish or heart-shaped, glossy black, with a long stem; flesh reddish-black, watery, sweet; season July; very productive.

Du Comte Egger. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882. Listed, not described.

Du Nord Nouvelle. P. cerasus. 1. Barry Fr. Garden 326. 1851. Mentioned as a Morello from France ripening in August. Fruit of medium size, bright red, tender, acid; useful because of its lateness.

Duchesse d'Angoulême.P.cerasus. 1. Mas Le Verger 8:155, 156, fig. 76. 1866-73 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:261,. 1877. 3. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:67, fig. 12. 1903.  Herzogin von Angoulême. 4. Ill. Handb. 535 fig., 536. 1861.  Duchesse d'Angouleme is supposed to have come from the vicinity of Vienna, Austria, although some writers give France as its place of origin. It is often confused with other sorts. Tree large, vigorous, upright, slightly spreading, productive; fruit medium to above in size, roundish-oblate; stem rather long and thick, set in a large, deep cavity; skin firm, bright red; flesh yellowish white, tender, juicy, sprightly, agreeably aromatic at extreme maturity; quality fair to good; stone nearly round, slightly compressed; ripens from the middle to the end of June.

Duchesse de Palluau. P.avium X P. cerasus. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:407 fig. 28. 1853, 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:261, 262 fig. 1877. 3. Rev. Hort. 236, 237, P1. 1901. Herzogin von Paluau. 4. Ill. Handb. 169 fig.170. 1860. Précoce Lemercier incor. 5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 142-146, fig. 1866.  Duchesse de Palluau was raised about 1840 by M. Pierre Bretonneau near Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France. In 1844 he gave cions of this variety, under the name Duchess de Palluau, to Leroy who propagated and probably disseminated the sort. Tree large, productive; fruit medium to large, heart-shaped, compressed; stem long, slender; skin thin, dark purple becoming almost black; flesh tinged with red, juicy, brisk subacid becoming sweet; good in quality; stone nearly free, oblong-ovate, small; tipens in early mid-season.

Duke of Edinburgh. P. avium. 1. Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales 19:998. 1908.  Tree stunted, upright; fruit too small and soft for market; similar to Belle d'Orleans; ripens in November in Australia.

Dumas. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882. Mentioned in the reference given.

Dunkelrothe Knorpelkirsche. P.avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 680-682. 1819. Bigarreau à Longue Queue. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 121, 122 fig., 123, 219. 1866. Bigarreau Rouge Foncé. 3. ibid- 2,:302. 1866.
Bigarreau Violet- 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:249 fig. 1877.  This variety probably originated with Van Mons in Belgium about 1790. It was received by Truchsess a little later as a French sort under the name Bigarreau Violet. Fruit large, elongated-cordate, sides compressed; suture very distinct dividing the fruit into halves; stem very long, more deeply inserted in unripe fruits; skin firm but not tough, yellowish, overspread with dark red, verging to violet; flesh yellowish, firm, juicy; quality excellent; stone free, small, roundish-oval; apex acutely pointed; ripens the middle of June.

Duraccia. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 292. 1893. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt 175. 1895.  E.E. Goodrich, Santa Clara, Califomia, received cions of this variety from Lucca, Italy, thinking it to be the famous 'Pistojese' used extensively in Italy for brandying. Fruit above medium in size, cordate; stem long, slender, set in a large, deep, regular cavity; suture deep, extending beyond the apex; skin thin, tough, smooth, glossy, finely pitted, dark purple to almost black; flesh red with lighter veinings, firm, meaty, rich, sweet; quality very good; pit of medium size, plump, partially adherent; season at Santa Clara the last of July to August; ships well; has not been reported from the eastem states.

Dure Noir Grosse. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882. Not described.

Dwarf Siberian. P. fruticosa. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 153. 1832. Dutch Weeping. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc- Cat. 48. 1831. De Sibérie- 3. ibid. 55. 1831. 4. Poiteau Pom. Franc, 2:No. 20, P1. 1846. Weeping. 5. Kenrick Am. Orch. 283. 1832. De Sibérie à fruit rond ? 6. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:508. 1860.  Dwarf Siberian belongs to Prunus fruticosa,the dwarf cherry of the Old World, of which Cerasus chamaecerasusis a synonym. This cherry was introduced into America by Prince of Flushing, New York, and was thought by him to be the most suitable species to furnish stocks for dwarf trees. At best the variety reaches a height of from three to four feet with branches very numerous, forming a dense shrub. The flowers have long peduncles, often solitary but are usually united in umbels of from three to five each, which are sessile and axillary; fruit globular, red, small; flesh red, very acid, tender.

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Early Amarella. P. cerasus. 1. Albertson & Hobbs Cat. 26. 1904. 2. Vincennes Nur. Cat. 26. 1906.  Tree upright, hardy, very productive; fruit large, brilliant red becoming darker as it gets riper; stem very long.

Early Amber. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 69. 80. 1866. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 45. 1831. River's Early Amber Heart. 3. Kendrick Am. Orch- 234. 1841. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 177- 1845. Guigne panachée précoce. 5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:97, 208. 1866. Bigarreau Ambré Précoce. 6. Mas Le Verger 8:49, 50, fig. 23. 1866-73. 7. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:174, 175 fig. 1877.  Thomas Rivers of Sawbridgeworth, England, is given credit for this variety as a strain of the old Early White Heart. Leroy, however, states that his grandfather propagated this cherry under the name Cerise Panache or Suisse, as early as 1790 but without knowing its origin. He dropped the "précoce" because other varieties ripened long before this one. Tree vigorous, erect, productive; fruit borne in threes, medium in size, obtuse- cordate, slightly compressed; suture wide: stem long, slender, set in a straight, deep cavity; skin firm, medium thick, changing from lively red to reddish-brown; flesh yellowish, tender, cracking, with uncolored juice, sweet, aromatic; pit large for the fruit; season early.

Early Black Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 80. 1866. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:302. 1866.  Fruit large, distinctly heart-shaped; stem long; color jet black; flesh dark purple, firm, rich, sweet; excellent; season the last of June and the first of July.

Early Eugene. Species? 1.Ill.Hort.Soc.Rpt-437- 1898.  Reported by H.L. McGee, Villa Ridge, Illinois, as being a hardy and productive variety.

Early May. P. cerasus. 1. Rural N.Y. 12:375. 1861. 2. Trans. Ill. Agr. Soc. 5:,99. 1861-64, 3. Am. Jour. Hort. 1:123. 1867. 4. Ibid 3:18-22. 1868. 5. Am. Hort. Man. 84. 1869. 6. Country Gent. 39:118- 1874.  This variety originated a generation or more ago in Virginia and was known there and in neighboring States as Early May. Later, it became widely disseminated in the Middle West where it was often confused withEarly Richmond,Late Kentish and Montmorency. Early May should not be confused with a European cherry of the same name formerly grown upon the Continent but now seldom seen. The fruit of the American sort is much like Early Richmond though of inferior quality and is now probably wholly replaced by the latter variety.

Early Prolific. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 193, 194. 1854.  Early Prolific was raised byProfessor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, Tree healthy, vigorous, upright, slightly spreading; fruit large, round, obtuse-cordate; suture distinct; stem variable; skin bright carmine-red mottled on a light amber-yellow ground; flesh, rather tender, firm, juicy, rich, sweet; very productive; season early June.

Early Red Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Prince POM. Man. 2: 130. 1832. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 81, 94. 1866- 3. Thomas GUide Prat. 23. 1876.  Bigarreau Rouge de Guben.4. Leroy Dict. POM. 5:242 fig., 243. 1877.  This variety originated about 1845, from seed in the garden of the Pomological Society, at Guben, Prussia, Germany. The Russians, who were growing it in 1858, sent the variety from Crimea to M. Eugéne Glady, who in turn gave cions of it to Leroy. Tree moderately vigorous, productive; fruit usually attached in pairs; above medium to large, obtuse-cordate, more or less irregular , compressed; suture indistinct; stem long, slender, inserted in a deep cavity; skin thick, dark red changing to reddish-brown: flesh dark colored, firm, breaking; juicy, sweet, pleasant; quality excellent; stone rather large, ovate; ripens the last of June.

Early Red Guigne. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 23. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 7. 1895. 3. Rivers Cat. 18. 1898-99.
This cherry, of unknown origin, was Propagated by Thomas Rivers of Sawbridgeworth. England. It is thought by some to be Elton. Fruit large, pale red; flesh very tender, rich and good; ripens in early June.

Early Red and Yellow. P.avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:282. 1842.  This variety was raised by Robert Manning, Salem, Massachusetts, from the seed of a white Bigarreau. Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; light red on a yellow ground; sweet, juicy; good; ripe the last of June.

Early Rivers. P. avium. 1. Flor. & Pom. 5 fig., 6. 1872. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 28, 204. 1876. 3. Flor. & Pom. 197. 1878- 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App, 162. 1881. 5. Hogg Fruit Man. 296. 1884. Guigne Early Rivers. 6. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 104 fig., 105. 1904.  Early Rivers is a seedling of Early Purple raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England; first fruited in 1869. Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, somewhat uneven and indented on the surface; stem long, rather slender; skin thin, deep red changing to glossy black; flesh reddish, juicy, very tender, rich, sweet; very good in quality; stone very small, elongated; season early.

Early York. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 666. 1897, Fruit medium in size; flesh greenish-white, tender, juicy, subacid.

Ebenter Cherry. Species? 1. Flor. & Pom. ii1. 2879. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 347. 1889.  This cherry is said to be cultivated on the shores of Lake Constance, Germany, notably at Lindau and Tettnang, and is distinguished for its firm flesh, large size and small stone. Ripens after all other table cherries.

Edouard Seneclause. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882. Not described.

Elfner Kirsche. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 347. 1889. Listed by Mathieu.

Elizabeth. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 207. 18542. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882.  Elizabeth is a seedling from Caleb Atwater, Portage County, Ohio, 1823. Tree vigorous, upright, prolific; fruit medium to large, heart-shaped, flattened on the sides; stem of medium length, set in a regular cavity; skin rich, dark red; flesh yellowish, slightly tinged with red, rather tender, juicy, pleasantly sweet; pit roundish-ovate; season the middle of June.

Emperor Francis. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:111, 112, fig. 56. 1882. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard- 42. 1904. 3. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. 30: 133, 1906. Bigarreau Empereur-Francois- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 16. 1876. Kaiser Franz Josef. 5. Proskauer Obstsort- 56. 1907. 6. Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift 122. 1910.  The origin of Emperor Francis is not given in any of the references though the variety seems to be quite well known in both France and England. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; stem rather short; cavity medium in size; skin marbled with red on a yellowish-white ground; flesh firm, crisp, sweet, high flavored; stone small, bluntly pointed; ripens rather late.  [Emperor Francis in 'Cherries of Utah']

English Amber. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 207, 208. 1854.  Probably this is an old variety known under some other name. Tree vigorous, strong in growth, very productive; fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, regular; stem long; skin delicate amber, mottled with pale red; flesh whitish-yellow, half-tender, delicate, juicy, very sweet; pit of medium size; ripens the last of June.

English Bearer. P. cerasus. 1. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. P1. 9. 1817. 2. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 2:131, P1. 71 fig. 3. 1823 English Preserve. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 49. 1831.  This variety is grown in Kent, England, where it is known as English Preserver. It is distinguished from the Kentish only by its larger size and the dark, irregular spots under the skin. Ripens early in July.

English Gaskin. Species? 1.U. S. Pat. Off. RPt- 309. 854. An almost worthless sort mentioned in the reference given.

Englische Weinkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 284. 1819.  Fruit large, roundish; stem long; skin tender, ground-color milky-white, crimson where exposed, on maturity the white changes to yellowish; juicy, vinous, aromatic; ripens in July.

Englische Weisse Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:27. 1858 Englische weisse ganz frühe Herzkirsche. 2. Christ Handb. 683. 1797- 3. Christ Wörterb. 280. 1802. 4. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 251, 252, 253. 1819. Possibly this is the same as the White Heart of England. It is without a doubt a separate variety from the Guignier à gros fruit blanc of Duhamel. Fruit above medium in size, elongated-cordate; stem very long, slender, set in a deep cavity; suture a line skin yellowish-white, tinged with red in the sun, uneven, glossy, transparent; flesh white, not very tender, juicy, sweet; quality good; stone of medium size, cordate, acute; ripens at the end of June.

Enopa. P. pumila X P.triflora. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 108:1908. 2. ibid. 130:178 P1. 8. 1911. Enopa, a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum, was sent out in 1908 by the South Dakota Station. Fruit one and one-sixteenths inches in diameter, round, with a minute prickle at the apex; skin thin, free from acerbity, dark red, with blue bloom; flesh green.

Episcopale. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 25, 193. 1876. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:265 fig. 1877.  This variety, according to Leroy, was found in the vicinity of Paris and was introduced by M. Jamin-Durand, Dourg-la-Reine, in 1846. The tree is distinguished from that of Montmorencyin being more erect, less dense, less productive; the fruit is more acid and later in ripening.,

Eppers Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Dochnahl. Führ. Obstkunde 3:67- 1858.  Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, oval, flattened at the base, brownish-red, with a deep suture; flesh clear red, juicy, strongly subacid; pit elongated; ripens in September.

Erfurter Augustkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Obstbäume 159. 1791. 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort- 550-554. 1819. D'Aout Erfurt- 3. Mas Pom. Gew- 11:SG, 90, fig. 45. 1882. Delices d'Erfurt- 4. Guide Prat- 17. 1895. Erfurt Delicious. 5. Gard. Chron. 19:429. 1896. Hochgenuss Van Erfurt. 6. Proskauer Obstsort- 59. 1907.  This cherry is well known in and about Thuringia forest, Germany, where it is propagated by suckers and is valued for its lateness. Tree vigorous; fruit above medium in size, roundish-cordate, flattened; stem of medium length, set in a noticeable cavity; suture indistinct; skin tender, glossy, brownish-red changing to purplish-black; flesh tender, reddish, juicy, sugary, acidulated; stone free, small, pea-shaped; ripens the last of July.

Etopa. P. pumila X P.triflora. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 198:1908. 2. ibid. 130:179 1911. Etopa is a cross between theSand Cherry and the Occident plum. Said to be excellent in quality and remarkable for its intense black, purplish color of skin, flesh and juice; skin thin, free from acerbity; ripens there about September twelfth.

Eugène Furst. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Guide Prat. 19. 1895. Fürst's Herzkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkande 3:23. 1858.  Fruit above medium in size, elongated-cordate; stem of medium length, slender; skin black; flesh red, sugary, acidulated; matures the last of June to July. Said to be similar to May Duke.

Everbearing. P. cerasus. 1. Okla. Sta. Bul. 2:131892. 2. Budd-Hanson Am. Hort. Man. 2:276. 1903.  Fruit large, roundish-oblate, somewhat compressed; stem long, inserted in a broad, shallow cavity; skin dull red to dark red when ripe; flesh quite tender, juicy, mildly acid; quality good.

Exceliente Douce Tardive. P. avium. 1. Ann. Pom. Belge 2:101, 102, P1. 1854.  This cherry was produced from seed, in France in 1839. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish, flattened at the ends; stem long, stout, inserted in a deep, wide cavity; skin thin, glossy, deep red mottled with clear red changing to reddish- black, often yellowish-amber in the shade; flesh yellowish, melting, sugary, slightly acidulated; quality very good; pit small, yellowish, roundish, apex pointed; ripens in August.

Eyami. P. pumila X P.triflora. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 108:1908. 2. Ibid. 1.30:179. 1911.  Eyami is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum and was sent out by the South Dakota Station in 1908. Fruit one and three-sixteenths by one and five- sixteenths inches in size, round; skin thin, dark red, semi-transparent; flesh green, pleasant; pit large.

Ezaptan. P. pumila X P. triflora. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 130:,80 P1.. 9, 181. 1911.  Ezaptan, a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Occident plum, was introduced in 1911 by the South Dakota Station. It is remarkable for its early and heavy bearing; skin thin, free from acerbity, dark purple; flesh black purplish-red to the pit.

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Faversham Heart. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 49. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

Favorite. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 207 fig. 1854. Elliott's Favorite. 2. Horticulturist 2:124. 1847-48. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 361. 1849. 4. Mag. Hort. 19: 167, 168. 1853.  Favorite is one of Professor J.P.Kirtland's cherries originating in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed with Black Tartarian, Black Mazzard, orMay Duke. The tree resemblesAmerican Heart while the fruit is similar to Choisyin flavor and texture but larger. Tree vigorous, half-spreading, productive: fruit medium in size, round, regular, slightly compressed; stem long, set in an even and regular cavity; skin pale amber-yellow, with a bright, marbled, carmine-red cheek; flesh pale amber, translucent, tender, delicate, juicy, with a sweet, fine flavor; pit small, angular, smooth.

Festfleischige Schwarze Knorpelldrsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 35 fig., 36. 1867. Grosse dunkel braunrothe Kramelkirsche. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:3, Tab. 7 fig. 1. 1792. Grosse schwarze Knorpelkirsche mit festem Fleisch- 3. Truchsess-Heirn Kirschensort. 193-195. 819. Bigarreau-noir à chair trés-ferme. 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 189. 1876.  This cherry has the hardest flesh of all the black, hard-fleshed cherries, differing from the Grosse Schwarze Knorporpelkirsche in its firmer flesh. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit rather large, plump, truncate at the apex, sides compressed; suture not prominent; stem stout, long, set in a variable cavity; skin tough, almost black at maturity, flesh very firm, juicy, colored, very sweet, although with a mixture of sourness; stone small, turgid, cordate, sides compressed, clinging; ripens late.

Flagg. P. cerasus. 1. Cult. & Count. Gent. 41:502. 1876. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 164. 1881.  Flagg was introduced by its originator, D.B.Wier, Lacon, Illinois, as Wier's Early Kentish, a selected seedling of Early Richmond, hardier and ten days carlier. Tree slender, short-jointed, regularly conical, modorate in growth; at its best in high, dry, airy situations, with light soil; fruit medium in size, heart-shaped; skin black, firm; flesh tender, purplish red, juicy, changing from a rich subacid to a very sweet, rich flavor; pit small; adapted to kitchen and table use.

Flamentine. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 211-215. 1819. 2. Mas Le Verger 8: 137, 138, fig. 67. 1866-73. Bigarreantier à petit fruit hâtif. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 165, 166. 1768. Bigarream et petit fruit blanc. 4. Lond. Hort. SOc. Cat. 46. 1831. Early Guigne. 5. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 111, 112. 1832. Early White Bigarreau. 6. ibid. 2: 129. 1832. Petite Bigarreau hâtif. 7. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 130, 131. 1866. Bigarreau Blanc (Petit).8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:182 fig., 183. 1877. Türkine,? 9. Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift 121. 1910.  This cherry probably originated more than a century ago in the vicinity of Angers, France. Names of wholly distinct varieties have sometimes been attached to it causing much confusion in the nomenclature. Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit usually in threes, above medium in size, obtuse-mrdate, flattened at the base, compressed; suture often a line; stem long, almost stout, inserted in a deep, narrow cavity; skin thin, glossy, whitish-yellow, mottled with dark red; flesh yellowish-white, transparent, rather firm, juicy, aromatic, sugary; first quality; stone small, oval; ripens the middle of June.

Flemish Gean. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831 A small, red, obtuse-cordate fruit of fair quality and tender flesh, ripening early in July.

Fleurs Doubles. P. cerasus. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 174, 1768. 2,. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 49. 1831. Great rose- 3. Parkinson Par. Ter- 402, 574. 1629. Double Flowered Cherry. 4. Gerarde Herball 1505 fig. 8. 1636. Bloem-kers double. 5. Knoop Fructologie 2:35, 38. 1771. Weichselbaum mit sehr gross gefüllter Blüthe. 6. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1: 5, Tab. 11 fig. 1. 1792. Glaskirsche mit dickgefüllter Blüthe. 7. Christ Handb. 680. 1797. Amarellenbaum mit ganz gefüllter Blüte. 8. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 640-644. 1819. Small Double Flowering. 9. Prince Treat. Hort. 31. 1828. Dwarf Double Flowering. 10. Prince Pom. Man. 2:151, 152. 1832. Gefülltblühende Amarelle. 11. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:68. 1858.  The tree of this variety, unlike many otherdouble-flowering sorts, attains but moderate size, in many cases is but a bush or shrub. The blossoms are exceedingly double, very showy, with a slight tinge of pink on opening, the blooming season extending over three or four weeks. Frequently the blossoms have small leaflets intemingled with the petals, while often a smaller flower appears to rise out of the center of another. The trees very seldom, if ever, bear. Truchsess reports having fruited it twice in ten years. The early English writers make brief mention of several double-flowering sorts which have been included under this variety.

Fleurs Semi-doubles. P. cerasus. 1. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:173, PlV. 1768. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc Cat. 49. 1831.
Lesser rose- 3. Parkinson Par. Ter- 402, 574. 1629. Red-flowered. 4. Ray Hist. Plant. 1538. 1688. Bloem-kers double. 5. Knoop FruCtOlOgie 2:35, 38. 1771. Gefüllter Kirschbaume. 6. Krünitz Enc. 43, 44. 1790. Weichsel mit halbgefüllter Blüthe- 7. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1: 9, Tab. 21 fig. 1. 1792. Glaskirsche mit halbgcfüllter Blüthe. S. Christ Handb. 680. 1707. Gedoppelle Amarelle mit halbgefüllter Blüte. 9. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 646-649. 1819. Halbgeffültblühende Amarelle. 10. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:68. 1858. Amarelle mit halbgefüllter Blüthe. 11. Ill. Handb. 93 fig., 94. 1867.  The home of this cherry is not known, it having been greatly confused with other double-flowering sorts. The flowers have a double row of from fifteen to twenty petals and often have two pistils, especially on the older trees. These generally bear twin-fruits though often the pistils are changed into small, green leaves, in which case the flowers are neither large nor attractive. The tree is of the Amarelle type, small, blooming profusely; fruit moderately round, compressed on one side with a shallow suture; stem long, stout; cavity wide; skin clear red, becoming darker and flecked with brown; flesh whitish, tender, juicy, sweet, pleasing, subacid at first; stone oval, bluntly pointed, often small and round, free when fully ripe; ripens the middle of July.

Florianer Kirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:34. 1858. A productive seedling Bigarreau of medium size, elongated, angular; stem short, stout; skin black; flesh sweet, aromatic; sccond quality; ripens at the end of June.

Folgerkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wöterb. 283. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschen sort. 415-419. 1819. Holländische Folgerkirsche incor. 3. Christ Handb. 673. 1797. Cerise de Folger- 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:158, 209. 1866.  A few authors describe this cherry as Volgers; the Volger described by Knoop in 1771, however, is a distinct variety. Duhamel's variety, Cerise Guigne, is possibly the same. Fruit large, roundish, truncate at the base, in unfavorable seasons the apex and sides are strongly compressed, with a noticeable suture; stem stout, long, set in a wide cavity; skin deep reddish-purple, glossy, tender; flesh delicate, sweet with a piquant taste; stone small.

Folgers Swolfe. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 292. 1802.  According to Christ, Salzman says that in Holland several Sour Cherries were known as Folgers. This is a large, black, pleasant subacid fruit with a very characteristic growth.

Fouche Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Am. Gard. 9:264. 1888. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul73:75 1903. This variety is said to have been imported by Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, Iowa, from Riga, Russia, where it was found planted along walks and drives. Tree rather small; fruit small, roundish-oblate; cavity shallow, broad; stem slender, rather long; suture a line; skin thin, rather tough, dark red changing to crimson; flesh firm, breaking, juicy, colored, sprightly subacid; quality fair; stone ncarly round, of medium size; ripens early in July.

Frauendorfer. P. cerasus. 1. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12,:125. 1900. Frauendorfer Weichsel. 2. Ill. Handb. 513 fig., 514. 1861. 3. Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt. 103. 1886-87. Griotte de Frauendorf- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 22, 194. 1876.  This variety was imported into this country by Professor J.L. Budd in 1883 from North Silesia. The Montreal Horticultural Society believes two forms exist, one from North Silesia being perfectly hardy while another from Metz, Germany, is far less so. Tree productive; branches drooping; fruit above medium in size, roundish-oblate; suture shallow; stem long; cavity small; skin thin, glossy, dark red at maturity; flesh tender, tinted with abundant, uncolored juice, acidulated; stone large; matures the last of June and the first of July.

French Amarelle. P. cerasus. 1. Rural N.Y. 49:453 1890.  Trees thrifty and tall but set fruit sparingly; fruit large, yellow with a blush, two weeks later than Early Richmond.

French Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Tex. Sta. Bul. 16:99. 1891. In the reference this cherry is listed as a Russian variety introduced by Professor J.L. Budd. If so, it was probably under some other name, as it seems not to be mentioned by Budd.

Frogmore Early Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Gard. Chron. 606. 1965. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 298. 1884. 3. Flor. & Pom. 148 fig. 18674. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard. 43. 1904. Frogmore Early Prolific. 5. Daniels Bros. Cat. 51. 1895. Frogmore Bigarreau. 6. Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales. 998. 1908.  Unlike the rest of its class, this cherry has tender flesh but is a Bigarreau in tree-habit, leaf and in appearance of fruit, and is therefore classified as such. The variety is a seedling raised by Thomas Ingram of the Frogmore Royal Gardens at Windsor, Berkshire, England. Tree bears freely in clusters; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed, with a faint suture; stem long, set in a small cavity; skin waxen, orange-yellow, with a network of red and a blush of deeper red on the sunny side; flesh of a primrose color, very tender, translucent, rich, sweet; stone spoon-shaped, indented on one side; season early but short.

Frogmore Early Crown. Species? 1. Gard. Chron- 364. 1866. Also a seeding from Mr. Ingram. It is a small, red fruit about ten days earlier than May Duke, of a rich flavor when fully ripe.

Frogmore Late Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Flor. & Pom. 2 29, P1. fig. 1. 1874. 2. Guide Prat. 15. 1895.  Still another seedling raised by Ingram of the Frogmore Royal Gardens. Fruit large, bluntly heart-shaped, hanging long without cracking; suture slight; stem very long; skin pale, waxy-yellow, bright red on the sunny side; flesh tender, juicy; season very late.

Frogmore Morrelo. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat- 25. 1876. New Frogmore Morello. 2. Mclntosh Bk. Gard. 2:543. 1885.  This variety attracted notice on account of the perfection to which it had been brought in the Royal Gardens at Frogmore, Berkshire, England, where it is believed to have originated. For productiveness and size it is said to far surpass the old Morello.

Fromm Heart. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 63 fig., 64. 1860. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:68, 69 fig., 70. 1866- 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:322, 323 fig. 1877. 4. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 549. 1901. Fromms Schwarze Herzkirsche- 5. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 164, 674. 1819. 6. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 150, 151. 1825. Fromm Heart was obtained from seed in 1806 by Fromm, at Guben, Prussia, Germany.  In sandy soils and favorable years the trees are very productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, above medium in size, truncate-cordate, sides compressed; suture shallow; stem of single fruits long, stout, inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin dark reddish-brown to glossy black; flesh tender, dark red, juicy, sugary, pleasingly acidulated, aromatic; second quality; pit medium in size, turgid, roundish; ripens the third week of the cherry season.

Frühe bunte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 222, 223, 224. 1819. F'rühe Lange Weisse Herzkirsche. 2. Christ Wörterb. 278. 1802. Guigne panaché longue Précoce- 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 19, 199. 1876.
This cherry is easily recognized by its elongated, cylindrical form and should not be confused with several others of similar type. It was found near Weinberge, Germany, by Büttner who sent it to Truchsess in 1797. Fruit medium in size, cylindrical, flattened on both sides, slightly drawn in at the apex and base; suture distinct on one side; stem long, inserted in a shallow cavity; skin yellow, blushed and faintly splashed with red where exposed; flesh pale yellow with a slight red tinge underneath the skin, moderately firm, juicy, without much sweetness; stone small, elongated, pointed at the apex; ripens early.

Frühe Kurzstielige Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 31. Proskauer Obstsort- 55. 1907. Mentioned as a black, hard-fleshed cherry.

Frühe Maikirsche. P.avium X P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 391-394. 1919. Frühe Maikirsche differs from May Duke in being darker of skin and juice, smaller in size, sweeter, and less distinct in suture.

Frühe Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Ill. Handb. 185 fig., 186. 1860. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:306. 1866- 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:47, 48, fig. 24. 1882. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 349. 1889.  An old variety of uncertain origin. Tree large, spreading; fruit often large, roundish, flattened; suture indistinct; stem slender, shallowly inserted; skin tender, nearly black when mature; flesh tender, juicy, dark red, acidulated; stone round, plump; ripens the first of June in France.

Frühe Säuerkirsche.P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 554, 555. 1819.  This cherry is thought to be a sub-variety of Kirsche von der Natte. Tree medium in growth; branches slender; fruit medium in size, round, sides compressed; stem long; cavity shallow; skin tough, black; flesh tender, dark red, juicy, sour, without a trace of sweetness; ripens the middle of July.

Frühe Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wörterb. 277. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 97, 198, 674, 675. 1819.  Obtained-by Büttner in 1797 who later sent it to Truchsess. Tree productive; fruit small, roundish-cordate, compressed; suture distinct; stem of medium length; skin glossy, reddish-black deepening to black; flesh hard, reddish-black, juicy, sweet, with a slight bitterness; stone ovate, rather large; ripens the first half of July.

Frühe von der Natte. P.avium X P. cerasus. 1. Ill. Handb. 153 fig., 154, 1860. Frühe Natte aus Samen. 2. Christ Handb. 671. 1797. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschen Sort- 413, 414, 415. 1819. Frühe Süssweichsel von der Natt. 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:49- 1858. Hâtive de Nattes. 5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 158, 304. 1866. Natte hâtive de semis. 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161. 1882.  Christ received this cherry in 1793, as Frühe von der Natte aus Saamen. Fruit above medium in size, cordate, flattened on one side; suture distinct; stem long, often dividing about an inch down into two, three, or four stems; apex depressed; sidn glossy, dark brown when ripe; flesh dark red, soft, tender, juicy, refreshing, subacid; stone medium, oval; ripens early.

Früher Gobet. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschemort. 619-621. 1819. Gobet Hâtif. 2. Mas Le Verger 8: 125, 126, fig. 61. 1866-73.  Truchsess received this variety from Mayer as Gros Gobet which it resembles very closely in size, form, and flavor but is much earlier and not as flattened. Fruit of medium size, flattened; suture but a line; stem one inch long, often shorter, straight; cavity shallow; color clear red, becoming darker; flesh whitish with a reddish cast, tender, juicy, pleasingly acid; stone small, round, free but hanging to the stem.

Früheste Bunte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 207-210. 1819. Weiss und rothe grosse Herzkirsche. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:2, Tab. 3 fig. 1. 792. 3. Christ Wörterb. 277. 1802. Frühkirsche? 4. Christ Handb. 672. 1797. Früheste bunte Molkenkirsche. 5. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3: 26. 1858. Guigne panachée très-précoce. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:302. 1866. 7. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:13, 14, fig. 7. 1882.  The origin of this variety is unknown although it probably originated in Austria, as the celebrated Austrian pomologist, Kraft, was the first to mention it. Tree vigorous and in favorable seasons productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate, compressed, with a suture; stem medium, set in a deep, narrow cavity; skin tender, yellowish-white, striped with red around the base, spotted about the apex; flesh yellowish-white. with clear juice, sweet, pleasing, deteriorates on hanging; stone small, oval-cordate, clinging; ripens the last of May.

Früheste der Mark. Species? 31. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 350. 1889. 2. Lucas Handb. Obst. 121. 1893. 3. Lange Allgem. Garten- 440. 1897.  Fruit medium to above, truncate-cordate; stem very long, slender, sct in a wide, deep cavity; skin purplish, glossy; flesh reddish, firm, pleasing; ripens early.

Fürst Schwarze Septemberkirsche. P. avium. 1. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 153. 1825.  Discovered by Liegel in Braunau, Bohemia, Austria, and named for his friend I.E. Farst. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit small, oblate; stem very long; skin black; flesh firm, sweet, aromatic; stone large; one of the last to ripen, September to October.

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Galusha. P. cerasus. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 165. 1881.  This cherry is seedling No. 11 from D.B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois. Tree hardy, vigorous, an abundant bearer; fruit above medium in size, light red changing to a very dark, bright red; subacid becoming a rich sweet; ripens three days before Early Richmond.

Gamdale. Species? 1. Horticulturist :17:498- 1862. A cherry described by B. Manning, Harrisburg, Ohio, as of second rank in size and quality.

Garcine. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:75 fig., 76, 77. 1866. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 24, 198. 1876.  Garcine was obtained from seed about 1808 by M. Garcine, near Grenoble, Isère, France. It is propagated in that locality by suckers, hence it was called by some, Aventurière. Tree pyramidal, productive; fruit large, oblate, ends drawn in and flattened, sides convex; stem long, inserted in a large, deep cavity; skin glossy black; flesh dark, firm, sugary, aromatic, juicy; stone large, turgid; ripens the middle of June.

Gardiner. P. avium. 1. Me. Sta. An. Rpt. 22:175. 1906. Gardiner is a seedling of Black Tartarian. It is frequently killed back by severe winters in Maine.

Gaskins. Species? 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 299. 1884.  Gaskins is a corruption of Gascoignes. About Rye, Sussex, England, the name is still in general use, the people believing the variety was brought from Gascony, France.

Gauchers Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort. 56. 1907. Listed in this reference.

Geer. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 156. 1897.  Geer is a new cherry from eastern Oregon said to be later than Napoleonand to surpass it in size and quality.

Gelbe Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Obstbäume 161. 1791. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 342-349. 1819. Grosser weisser glänzender Herzkirschbaum. 3. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:2, Tab. 4 fig. 1. 1792. Guigne jaune- 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:99, 303. 1866. Guigne Grosse ambrée. 5. Le Bon Jard- 345. 1882.  First mentioned in 1786 as Gelbe or Weisse Herzkirsche. It is distinguished from Goldgelbe Herzkirsche through its cordate form, lighter color and earlier ripening. Fruit above medium in size, borne in twos and threes, cordate, sides compressed; suture shallow: stem long, slender, slightly inserted; skin pale yellow, glossy, tough, adherent, blushed with red on the sides; flesh clear, not tender, juicy, acidulated; stone free, small, elongated cordate; ripens in July.

Gelbe Wachskirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 355, 685, 686. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:33. 1858.  An unproductive seedling from the North Sea, ripening later than Gelbe Herzkirsche which it resembles. Fruit medium in size, round, flattened; stem long; skin glossy, clear waxy-yellow, transparent; flesh yellowish, firm, moderately sweet, without aroma; ripens from the middle to the end of July.

Gemeine Glaskirsche. P.avium X P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 292. 1802.  This is a well-known Dukecherry in Germany. Tree large; fruit large, almost round; skin clear, light red on a yellow ground; flesh melting, with uncolored jttice, pleasant sourness; ripens early in July and lasts a long while.

Genesee. P. avium.  A chance seedling of the Bigarreau type originating about twenty-five years ago and recently introduced by J.A. Morgan of Scottsville, New York. The fruit is above medium in size, cordate, compressed; cavity shallow, wide, flaring; suture a line; apex roundish; stem slender, long; skin medium thick, tender, adherent, dark red mottled with amber; dots numerous, small, obscure; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, meaty, crisp, mild, sweet; quality good; stone clinging, medium, ovate, flattened, smooth, slightly tinged red; use late market.

German. P. avium. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169: 199. 1899. German (Kraus).2. ibid. 143:191. 1897. German is said to have been introduced into -Michigan from New York. Tree vigorous, though not productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate; stem long, slender, set in a broad, moderately deep cavity; color very dark red, nearly black; flesh firm, red, sweet, slightly bitter, with dark juice; ripens early in July.

German Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 147. 1832. Griotte d'Allemagne. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:192, 193, P1. XIV. 1768. 3. Christ Obstbdume 159- 1791. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:276, 277 fig. 1877. Deutscher Griottier Weichselbaum. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:6, Tab. 16 fig. 2. 1792. Deutsche Griotte. 6. Christ Handb. 675 1797. 7. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 569, 570, 571. 1819. Grosse Deutsche Belzkirsche. 8. ibid. 421. 1819. Griotte de Chaux. 9. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831. German Duke. 10. Kenrick Am. Orch. 280. 1832. Deutsche Weichsel. 11. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:62. 1858. Süssweichsel von Chaux. 12. Ill. Hand. 71 fig., 72. 1867. De Chaux. 13. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 478. 1869. Cerise d'Allemagne- 14. Le Bon Jard- 346. 1882.  This old variety is badly confused with other cherries and its origin is uncertain.  Fruit large, roundish-oblate; stem long, slender; cavity deep, wide; skin glossy, tough, brownish, almost black; flesh firm, dark red, juicy, with pleasing acidity, sweet if in adry, warm soil; stone large, oval-pointed; ripens the middle of July; productive.

Germersdorf. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:60. 1900. Bigarreau noir de Germersdorf. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 22, 189. 1876.  Germersdorfer Grosse Kirsche- 3. Lauche Deut. Pom. III: No. 7, P1. 1882.  A seedling of German origin. Tree large, vigorous, productive; fruit very large, roundish-cordate; suture distinct; stem medium, set in a deep, wide cavity; skin dark brown with dark spots and streaks; flesh rather firm, light red, juice tinted, sweet, pleasingly acidulated; stone of medium size, oval; ripens the fifth week of the season.

Geschiltztblättrige Süssweichsel. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:47- 1858 An ornamental cherry distinguished from May Duke through its smaller fruit and laciniated leaves.

Gestriefte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 259, 260. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:30. 1858.  Fruit cordate; stem long, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin thin, tender, white, streaked with red, which, if allowed to remain on the tree, becomes nearly solid red; flesh tender, soft, fibrous under the skin, juicy, colorless, honey-sweet, refreshing; ripens in July lasting about three weeks.

Gewöhnliche Muskatellerkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 672. 1797.  Fruit smaller than that of the Black or Red Muskatelter, roundish, very dark brown, almost black; flesh red, pleasant subacid; ripens at the end of June.

Giant. P. avium. 1. Burbank Cat. 8. 1914.  Giant was grown in 1900 by Luther Burbank and introduced by The Luther Burbank Company in 1914. It is claimed by its introducer that it is the largest cherry grown. Tree rapid in growth, with large and heavy foliage; fruit glossy black, rich, sweet, delicious; ripens in California about June 20th.  [Giant in 'Cherries of Utah']

Gibb. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 2:39. 1888. 2. Ia.Hort. Soc. Rpt- 79. 1890. 3. Wash. Sta- Bul.92:17. 1910.  Gibb was transported from Orel, Central Russia, without a name. It is much likeBrusseler Braunein tree, fruit, and in habit of bearing a double crop of blossoms and fruit, but is hardier. Fruit large, roundish-cordate; stem stout; skin thick, tender, dark crimson changing to purplish-red; flesh dark red, meaty; quality good; stone large, oblong; ripens the last of July to early August.

Gifford. P. avium. 1. Downing Fruit Trees Am. 270. 1857.  Fruit small, light red, roundish-cordate, very sweet; productive; season the last of June.

Glasherzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 246-248. 1819. Grosse Glas-Herzkirsche. 2. Christ Wörterb. 281. 1802. Glas-Molkenkirsche. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:30, 31. 1858. This cherry differs from others of its class in being rounder, darker, and later. Fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, convex on one side, compressed on the other, with a shallow suture; stem long, slender, shallowly inserted; skin mingled with dull red and
clear white, often streaked; flesh yellowish-white, tender, juicy, sweet, but not high; stone large, acutely pointed; ripens the middle of July.

Glaskirsche von der Natte. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 470-473, 689, 1819. According to Truchsess this variety is very similar to, and often taken for Double Natte,Frühe von der Natte, andDouble Glass.

Glasskirsche Kurzstielige. P. avium. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 331. 1885.  This Sweet Cherry is supposed to have come from Vilna, Russia.

Gloire de France. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 26, 194. 1876. 2. Leroy Dict. -1 Pom, 5:271, 272 fig. 1877- 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 162. 1881. Bonnemain- 4. Guide Prat. 9, 184. 1895.  Originated from seed by Auguste Bonnemain, Etamps, Seine-et-Oise, France, fruiting in 1845 for the first time. On Mazzardstockthe tree never reaches full size but on Mahalebit grows large and regular and is more globular in form. At best it is only moderately productive. Fruit borne in threes, medium in size, roundish-oblate, somewhat depressed; suture broad, shallow, often indistinct; apex rather large, slightly depressed; stem short, thick, inserted in a wide cavity; skin a reddish-brick color, occasionally mottled with greenish-brown in the shade and red on the sunny side; flesh pale red, grayish, transparent, rather tender and fibrous, with abundant juice, sprightly acidulated, agreeable; pit of medium size, roundish-oval, convex; season the first of July.

Golden Knob. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. So. 1831. Golden Knob is a worthless, medium-sized, oval cherry ripening the middle of July; skin yellow and flesh firm.

Goldgelbe Herzkirsche. P.avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 350-354. 1819. Kleine Ambra, [or] Goldgelber Herzkirschbaum. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. I : 2, Tab. 4 fig. 2. 1792. Kleine Ambra. 3. Christ Hand. 665. 1797.  Distinguished from other yellow Heart cherries by its round form, dark yellow color, and rather firm flesh. Fruit of medium size, roundish; suture a line; stem very long, slender, deeply inserted; skin thin, tough, readily removed, transparent, glossy, golden- yellow; flesh moderately tender, yellowish, with darker spots showing through the skin, very juicy, with a pleasing sweetness when ripe; stone of medium size, oval, slightly adherent; ripens the last of June.

Goldsmith Black Heart. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 47. 1831. Mentioned but not described in this reference.

Goodspeed. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul.73:70. 1903.  Goodspeed is of the Montmorencytype ripening just after Early Richmond. The trees are long-lived and regular bearers. Fruit of medium size, oblate, slightly cordate; cavity deep, broad; suture shallow; stem short, stout; skin thin, tender, dark red; flesh moderately firm, tender, with uncolored juice, slightly subacid; quality good; stone free, of medium size, roundish-ovate.

Gormley. Species? 1. Can. Hort. 20:317. 1897. 2. Ibid. 21:297. 1897. This hardy seedling, now about twenty-five years old, was found by John Gormley of Pickering, Canada. It resemblesMontmorencyin color, English Morello in shape, and a Bigarreauin texture. Its firm, yellowish flesh parts readily from the pit.

Gottorper. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 289, 290, 291. 1819. 2. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 159- 1825. Gottorper Marmorkirsche. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:41. 1858. Cerise de Gottorpe- 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 117-119. 1866.  Originated in the vicinity of Coburg, Germany, toward the latter part of the Eighteenth century. It resemblesYellow Spanish. Tree above medium in size, very productive; fruit abruptly cordate to roundish; stem short, slender; cavity shallow; skin tough, red, mottled with yellow; flesh yellowish-white, not very firm, juicy, usually very sweet, slightly aromatic; stone small, oblate, free; ripens the fourth week of the cherry season; cracks in the rain when nearly mature; excellent for home use.

Gould No. X. Species? 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 211. 1896. Reported by the Illinois Horticultural Society in 1896.

Governor Luce. Species? 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 143:181. 1897. Listed as growing at the Michigan Station.

Grafenburger Kirsche. Species? 1. Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschriff 121. 1910.  A very productive, strong-growing cherry recommended for table and market use; fruit large, truncate-cordate, red, early.

Graham. P. avium. 1. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:28. 1910.  The Washington Experiment Station lists this variety as: Tree of medium size, upright, with abundant foliage; fruit small, round; skin thin, tender, dark red; flesh light red, juicy, rich, sweet; good; season the last of July; productive.

Grande Ronde. Species? 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- 156. 807.  A new, early, large, black cherry recommended in eastern Oregon; ships well.

Great Bearing. P. cerasus. 1. Rea Flora 205. 1676.  Fruit large, blackish-red on the outer side when ripe, blood-red within. Ripens late, with a sharp taste; bears well.

Great Leafed. Species? 1. Parkinson Par. Ter- 571. 1629.  This is a variety with very large leaves: relatively unproductive, bearing pale red fruit of only medium size.

Gridley. P. cerasus. 31. Prince Pom. Man. 2:123, 124. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 187. 1845. 3. Gard. Mon. 11:219. 1869- 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 12. 1871. Apple. 5. Cole Am. Fr. Book 234. 1849.  This variety was discovered by William Maccarty about the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, growing in the garden of Deacon Samuel Gridley, Roxbury, Massachusetts. For a good many years it was considered a valuable cherry but later was supplanted by better sorts. Tree upright, vigorous, very productive; fruit medium in size, roundish; stem short; color black; flesh firm, purplish-red, medium juicy, sprightly, rather acid at first becoming milder when fully ripe; stone small; matures in mid-season.

Grenner Glas. P. cerasus. 1. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont- 94. 1914.  Tree upright, vigorous, moderately productive; fruit borne in clusters, large, oblate, one-sided; suture distinct on one side; stem long; cavity broad, shallow; apex a small depression; skin bright red; flesh yellowish, tender, very juicy, tart; quality good; season the middle of July.

Griotte Acher. P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:275 fig., 276. 1877. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:67, 68, fig. 34. 1882. 3. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 482. 1904. Griotte Double. 4. Knoop Fructologie 2:35, 38, 39. 177,. Acher's Weichsel. 5. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 332. :1889.  The origin of Griotte Acher is not known but it may have sprung up by chance in Holland a century and a half ago. Tree medium in growth, productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, medium to large, flattened heart-shaped with truncate sides; cavity narrow; suture distinct; stem variable, usuallv long, medium thick; skin rather firm, vivid purple shading to almost purplish-black; flesh tender, slightly stringy, reddish-purple, mediun sweet, somewhat pleasing because of a slight tart, acid flavor, with abundant, violet juice; stone medium in size, ovoid, truncate at the base, turgid; ripens the last of July and the first of August.

Griotte de Büttner. P. cerasus. 1. Am. Card. 9: 264. 1888.  A dwarf sort that blossoms and ripens late; much like Imperial Morello.

Griotte Commune. P. cerasus. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:508- 1860. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 26, 194. 1876. 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:282 fig., 283. 1877. Griotte- 4. Duharnel Trait Arb. Fr. 1: 187-189, P1. XI1. 1768. 5. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 431, 432. 1819. Griotte simple. 6. Knoop Fructologie 2:36, 39. 1771. Griottier Weichselbaum. 7. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:6, Tab. 15 fig. 2. 1792. Common French Griotte. 8. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 148. 1832. Gemeine Süssweichsel. 9. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:49- 1858. Cerise Commune. 10. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:146 fig., 147, 148, 220. 1866.  The origin of this variety is unknown but according to French writers it was brought from Syria by the Crusaders about 1495. Tree large, productive; fruit medium in size, usually borne in pairs, distinguished from others of its class by its firm flesh, its black skin, and its colored juice, oblate, flattened at the base; suture slight; stem long, rather stout, set in a broad, shallow cavity; skin thin, glossy, dark red, changing to black; flesh colored, firm, vinous, aromatic, juicy; first quality; pit small, turgid, round; ripens the first of July.

Griotte Douce Précoce. P. cerasus. 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:35, 39. 1771, 2. Thornas Guide Prat. 21, 194. 1876. 3. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 112:118. 1900. Süsse Frühweichsel- 4. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 170. 1825. 5. Ill. Handb. 183 fig., 184 1860. Liegel's Süsse Frühweichsel. 6. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:58- 1858.  This variety is often confused with Süsseweichsel. The two are distinct, however, in that the latter has light colored flesh while the foriner is a dark fleshed sort. Tree vigorous, drooping, productive; fruit often borne in twos or threes, of medium size, roundish, compressed; suture shallow; stem rather slender, variable, medium to above in length, inserted in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin dark brownish-red changing to reddish-black; flesh tender, dark red, juicy, subacid, becoming milder at maturity; stone small, roundish; ripens the forepart of June.

Griotte de Kleparow. P. cerasus. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831. 2. Mortillet Le CeriSier 2: 186 fig., 187, 221. 1866. Polnische grosse Weichsel- 3. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:8, Tab. 20 fig. 2. 1792. Polnische Kirsche- 4. Christ Handb. 682. 1797. Polnische Weichsel. 5. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:60. 1858. Kleparower Süssweichsel. 6. Ill. Handb. 69 fig., 70. 1867. Kleparavoska. '7. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- 75. 1883. Griotte Kleparite. 8. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:277- 1903. 9. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:71 fig- 1903.  Budd found this variety very hardy about Galicia, Austria, and Warsaw, Russia, and imported it for central and southern Iowa. It is grown from seed in the forests of Poland. The Griotte Kleparite of Budd-Hansen is probably the same variety. Tree strong in growth, large, productive; fruit of medium size, generally attached in pairs, roundish-cordate, sides often compressed; suture shallow, often a line; stem long, slender, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin tough, clinging to the flesh, glossy, dark brownish-red, deep black when ripe; flesh tender, fibrous, lightly colored, juicy, acid, although sugary, aromatic; quality fair; pit small, turgid, almost spherical; ripens the last of July.

Griotte Lodigiana. P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. POM. 5:290, 291 fig. 1877.  Introduced into France from Florence, Italy, by Leroy about 1864. Fruit of medium size, globular, compressed at the ends; stem of medium length, inserted in a wide cavity; apex depressed; skin deep red; flesh pale yellow, tender, slightly fibrous, juicy, very sugary, slightly acidulated; second quality; stone of medium size, round, turgid; ripens the last of June.

Griotte Noire. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 26. 1876.  Listed as a large, blackish-red, acidulated fruit, ripening in July.

Griotte Noire de Piémont. P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:294, 295 fig. 1877. Griotte à gros fruit noir de Piémont. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 26. 1876. This variety, probably from Piémont, Italy, was received by Leroy in 1864. Fruit generally borne in pairs, above medium in size, globular, coinpressed at the ends; suture indistinct; stem long, set in a deep cavity; skin uniformly blackish-red; flesh tender, reddish, very juicy, acidulated, slightly sweet; quality fair; stone of medium size, roundish-oval, swollen; ripens the middle of June.

Griotte du Nord Améliorée. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat- 2 7. 1876. Mentioned as possibly larger and better than Griotte du Nord.

Griotte A Petit Fruit. P. cerasus. :1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831. Listed in the reference given.

Griotte Précoce. P.cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 329. 1885. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:277. 1903.  According to the first reference, this variety was brought into Spain from Central Asia and was known in parts of Europe as "Early Spanish." It was imported to America from Russia. Tree hardy; fruit large, flattened; suture distinct; stem medium in size, curved, set in a deep cavity; skin bright, glossy red; flesh soft, breaking, uncolored; quality very good; ripens the middle of June.

Griotte Rouge de Piémont. P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict- Pom. 5:303 fig., 304, 385. 1877. Griotte a gros fruit rouge de Piémont. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 26. 1876.  According to Leroy, it is not at all improbable that this cherry is the one spoken of by Pliny under the name, "Apronian."Fruit attached in pairs, above medium in size, globular, compressed at the ends; suture indistinct; stem short, stout, set in a small cavity; skin lively red; flesh whitish, tender, juicy, acidulated, somewhat bitter yet sugary; second quality; stone of mcdium size, roundish-oval, swollen; ripens the last of June.

Griotte de Schaarbeck. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 353. 889. Mentioned in this reference.

Griotte Tardive d'Annecy. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882. Listed in this reference.

Griotte Tardive de Plombiéres. P.avium. 1. Rev. hort. 503. 1888.  This variety is recommended because of its lateness but it remains a local variety, little known outside of Plombiéres, Vosges, France, where it was found. Fruit oval-cordate, elongated at the apex; skin glossy, brownish at complete maturity; flesh firm, adherent to the stone, whitish-gray, very sweet, agreeable; pit cordate; ripens the last of August, remaining on the tree during September.

Griotte de Toscane. P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:304, 305 fig., 396. 1877.  Leroy brought this cherry from Florence, Italy, to France about 1864. Fruit globular, more or less compressed at the ends; suture very shallow; stem long, set in a pronounced cavity; skin intense red changing to blackish; flesh of a garnet color, tender, juicy, sugary, slightly bitter: second quality; stone of medium size, round, turgid; ripens in early July.

Griotte de Turquie. P. avium X P. cerasus, 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 51. 1831.  Fruit large, round, red; flesh tender, ripens early in July. Similar to Choisy.

Griottier à Feuilles Cucullées- P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:267, 286 fig., 287. 1877. Cerisier cuculle? 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882.  Originated at Tours, Inde-et-Loire, France. Its only point of merit is in its cucullated foliage. Fruit small, globular, compressed at the ends; suture imperceptile; stem short; cavity variable; skin almost clear red; flesh tender, light rose-colored, juicy, acidulated, mildly sweet; quality hardly fair; pit very smalI, round, more or less swollen; ripens at the end of June.

Griottier à F'ruit Aigre. P. cerasus. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:508. 1860.  Tree of medium size, rather vigorous; fruit small, oval-roundish, blackish; flesh tender, juicy; mediocre quality; ripens in September and October in France.

Griottier à Longues Feuilles. P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:291, 292 fig. 1877.  Leroy grew this cherry as early as 1845 but did not know its origin. Fruit above medium in size, globular, slightly compressed at the ends; stem very short, inserted in a pronounced cavity; skin deep red, with gray dots; flesh tender, fibrous, yellowish-white, juicy, acidulated, slightly sweet, agreeable; second quality; stone of medium size, roundish-oval, turgid; ripens the first of July.

Groll Schwarze Knorpekirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 354. 1889 Listed in the reference given.

Gros Bigarreau Rond. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cersier 2,: 194, 208. 1866.  Fruit large, even, roundish, though often larger and less flattened than Bigarreau d'Italie; stem medium in length; color becoming black; flesh red, firm, sweet, pleasing; pit small and slightly elongated; ripens the last of May.

Gros Guindoul Hâtif. P. cerasus. 1. Rev. hort. 335. 1870-7,. Tree large; fruit of first size, superior quality, large, dark red, juicy, sprightly; ripens in June-July.

Grosse Blanche Carrée. P.avium, 1. Mag- hort. 9:204. 1843. A firm, red, heart-shaped cherry of second size and quality, used principally for the table, ripening in July.

Grosse Bunte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 226, 227, 228. 1819. Weiss Herzkirsche. 2. Christ Obstbäume 161. 1791. Grosse bunte Molkenkirsche. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:28- 1858 This cherry is distinguished from others of its class by its peculiar coloring. At one time it was recomrnended because of its size, flavor, and length of season. Fruit large, thick at the base, both sicles compressed and marked by a suture; stem long, slender, set in a shallow opening; ground color a dingy pale yellow more or less covered with red; flesh tender, melting, pleasing; ripens at the end of June.

Grosse Friedrichkirsche. Species? 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:39- 1858. Fruit large, compressed, roundish-cordate, pale yellow, washed with crimson; flesh slightly aromatic; ripens the end of June; productive.

Grosse Glaskirsche. P.avium X P. cerasus. 1. Krünitz Enc. 57, 58. 1790. 2. Christ Wörterb. 292. 1802. 3. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort- 473-475. 1819 Grosse Cerise Transparente- 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:172.,75, fig. 1866. 5. Guide Prat. 18, 190. 1995.  Through an error which he later rectified, Truchsess described the Double Glass as this variety. This cherry differs in having a shorter stem, iarger size and in ripening later. Fruit very large, almost round, flattened at the ends, depressed at the apex; stem stout, short, inserted in a large cavity; skin glossy, becoming dark red; flesh pale yellowish, melting, juicy, mild yet with a piquant, pleasing sourness; stone roundish, turgid, clinging to the flesh more than to the stem; ripens in August.

Grosse Gomballoise. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 150, 151. 1882. Bigarreau Grosse Gomballoise. 2. Guide Prat- 17. 1895.  Fruit large to very large, thickly cordate, often elongated, truncate at the ends; suture deep, but a colored line on one side; stem long, stout, set in a large, deep cavity; skin thick, firm, intense purple changing to almost black; flesh purple, fruit juicy, sugary, vinous, aromatic; pit of medium size; ripens at the end of June.

Grosse Guigne Blanche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 258. 1819. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:315, 316 fig. 1877. Guigne a gros fruit blanc. 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 161, P1. I fig. 3. 1768. 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:98, 09. 1866. Kleine weisse Frühkirsche. 5. Christ Wörterb. 278. 1802. Guigne Blanche. 6. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cal. 51. 1831. 17. Pom. France 7:No. 20, P1. 20. 1871. Early White Guigne. 8. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 112. 1832. White Heart. 9. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 07. 1846.  An old variety, probably of French origin, which, according to Leroy, was described by Merlet in 1667. Fruit large, attached in pairs, cordate, slightly elongated; stem medium in length, set in a wide cavity; skin dull yellow, tinged and mottled with dull red; flesh whitish, tender, juicy, slightly acidulated; quality fair, insipid in wet seasons; stone large, ovoid, clinging; ripens the last of June.

Grosse Guigne Noire à Court Pédicelle. P.avium. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:503. 1960. Guignier à Gros Fruit Noir et Court Pédoncule. 2. POM. France 7:No. 28, Pl. 29. 1871. An old variety of uncertain origin. Fruit large, roundish-cordate; suture broad; stem short, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin tender but firm, beautiful black at maturity; flesh soft, juicy, agreeable; quality good; stone of medium size, oval, reddish; ripens the last of June.

Grosse Höckerige Marmorkirsche. P.avium. 1. Dochnal Führ. Obstkunde 3.42. 1858. Fruit very large, uneven, roughened, dark red; flesh hard, rather sweet; ripens at the end of July; not very productive.

Grosse Mogulkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Obstbäume 160. 1791. Fruit large, cordate, red, dotted here and there with white; flesh mild; excellent; pit small.

Grosse Morelle. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 284. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 545-548. 1819. Grosse Morelle double? 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882.  Fruit large, globose; stem medium in length, slender, set in a smooth cavity; skin glossy, srnooth, inky-black; flesb blood-red, veined, juicy, wine-sour, not unpleasant; stone of medium size, blood-red; ripens frotn the end of June to July; often dried.

Grosse Nonnenkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 287. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 517, 518, 519. 1819. Varrenne, De. 3. Lond- Hort. Soc. Cat. 56. 1831. Grosse Cerise des Religieuses. 4. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:97, 98, fig. 49. 1882.  Probably of French origin. Tree moderately productive; fruit of medium size, round, sides unevenly compressed, with a shallow suture; stem long, set in a wide cavity; skin brownish-black, glossy; flesh tender, oolored, juicy, subacid; stone small, very broad, clinging to the stem; ripens the middle of July.

Grosse Picarde. P. cerasus.  The United States Department of Agriculture received this variety from F. Jamin, Bourg-la-Reine, France, in 1905, after which trees were sent to this Station for testing. Tree vigorous, rapid in growth; fruit of theMontmorencytype, above medium in size, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; cavity intermediate in depth and width, abrupt; suture a line; apex roundish; stem slender, long; skin moderately thick, tough, separating readily from the pulp, very dark red; dots numerous, small, obscure; flesh dark red, stringy, tender, melting, astringent, sour, juicy; poor to fair in quality; stone of mediurn size, ovate, slightly pointed, smooth, tinged with purple; season very late.

Grosse Schwarze Frühe Herzkirsche. P.avium. 31. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1: 2, Tab. 2 fig. 2. 1792. 2. Christ Wörterb. 274. 1802. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 158. 1819. Guigne à Gros Fruit Noir Hâtif. 4. Pom. France 7: No. 2 5, P1. 2 5. 1871.  This cherry differs from Frühe Maiherzkirsche in having a firmer flesh. Fruit above medium in size, cordate, pointed, black; suture distinct on one side; stem long, slender, deeply set; ripens in June.

Grosse Schwarze Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wörterb. 275. 1802. Gemeine Schwarze Herzkirsche. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 142-145, 156, 157 1819. Guignier à gros fruit noir? S. Noisette Man. Camp. Jard. 2: 502. 1860. Fruit large, cordate, flattened on one side; stem long, set in a deep cavity; skin thick, dark red changing to black, pitted; flesh rather firm, tender, f:ibrous, dark red, juicy, exceedingly sweet and refreshing, with a slightly bitterish after-taste; stone clinging; ripens in July.

Grosse Späte Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wörterb. 277. 1802 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 200, 201. 1819. Found in a German garden in 1797; distinguished from Elkhornin ripening later. Fruit large, round, flattened on the sides and apex; skin black, glossy; stem thick; flesh firm, juicy; ripens early in August.

Grosse Süsse Maiherzkirsche. P.avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort, 126-130. 1810. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:20. 1858. Grosse Süsse Maikirsche- 3. Christ Handb. 662. 1797.  Fruit above medium in size, roundish-cordate, sides compressed; stem of medium length, stout, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin tough, almost black; flesh tender, red- dish-black, juicy, sprightly, rich; stone of medium size, broadly cordate, with a faint point; ripens at the end of June; used for table and kitchen.

Grosse Tardive. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat- 17. 1876. Grosse späte Amarelle. 2. Proskauer Obstsort- 58. 1907.  Grosse Tardive is thought to have originated near Paris, France. It ripens the first of August when all other sweet, black cherries are gone. The tree resemblesMontmorency.

Grosse Transparente. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:60. 1900. Mentioned in the referenoe given.

Grosse Ungarische Kirsche. P.avium. 1. Krünitz Enc. 66-68. 1790. Ungarische Herzkirsche. 2. Christ Handb. 661. 1797. Grosse schwarze ungarische Herzkirsche- 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:20. 858. Fruit large, oval, rather angular; stem medium in length; cavity deep, irregular; suture distinct; skin glossy, black; flesh dark red, fine-grained, aromatic, sweet; stone large, oval; ripens early in July; productive.

Grosse de Verrirèes. P. avium. 1. Rev. Hort. 71, 72, Pl. 1870-71.  This cherry is extensively grown at Verrières, France, where it is often called, "La Grosse." The fruit, however, is but a trifle larger than Cerise Commune from which it differs only in its slightly elongated-cordate form; stem medium in length; skin deep red; flesh red, juicy, sweet; season the middle of July.

Grosse de Wagnellee. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 465. 1869. A vigorous, productive cherry of Belgian origin; fruit large, oval; skin yellow, washed and spotted with red; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; ripens in July.

Grosse Weinkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort- 385. 1881. Grosse Griotte à vin. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 21, 196. 1876.  Fruit flattened, roundish, rather large; stem rather long; suture indistinct; skin very dark, glossy red; flesh tender, dark red, juicy, sprightly, acid; pit egg-oval; ripens in July; used for conserves and coloring wines.

Grosse Weisse Frükirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort, 285, 679, 680. 1819.  Fruit large, truncate-cordate, one side compressed, with a shallow suture; stem long, stout, set in a wide, shallow cavity; skin firm, tough, pale yellow, washed with deep red; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, pleasing; stone small, round, plump, partly clinging; ripens the middle of July.

Groth Braune Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 358. 1889 Listed without description in this reference.

Groth Gelbe Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort- 56. 1907. Bigarreau jaune de Groth. 2. Thomas Cruide Prat. 27, 189. 1876. Groth's Wachskirsche. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 337, 358. 1889.  Tree vigorous and very productive; fruit rather large, truncate-cordate; skin transparent, brilliant yellow; flesh rather firm, very sweet, agreeable; first quality; matures early in July.

Grünstiel-Kirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:22. 1858.  Fruit black, of medium size, obtuse-cordate, noticeably furrowed; stem long, shallowly inserted; flesh firm, colored, subacid; pit of medium size, round, somewhat clinging; ripens the middle of July.

Guben. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 549. 1901. Bigarreau noir de Guben. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 190. 1876. Gubener Schwarze Knorpel. 3. Oberdieck Obst-Sort- 369. 1881. Late Black Bigarreau? 4. Guide Prat. 18. 1895. Guben originated near the town of the same name in Prussia, Germany. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, sides slightly compressed; suture indistinct; stem rather long; cavity shallow; skin firm, glossy, nearly blade; flesh firm, dark red, sweet, with a pleasing sourness; pit roundish; ripens the last of June.

Gubens Ehre. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 358. 1889. 2. Lange Allgem. Garten. 423. 1897. Fruit large, dark red, with a slightly aromatic flavor.

Guigne Anglaise Blanche Précoce.P.avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161 - 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Guigne d'Argovie. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cal- 51. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

Guigne Blanche Précoce. P. avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:316- 1877. Received by Leroy from Germany in 1860 and said by him to lack size and quality.

Guigne Bonne Alostoise. P. avium 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 359. 1889. Mentioned in the reference given.

Guigne de Buxeuil. P. avium 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Listed without a description.

Guigne Carnée Winkler. P.avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:317, 318 fig., 319. 1877. Winkler weisse Herzkirsche. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 278, 279. 1819. Guigne Blanche de Winkler- 3. Mas Le Verger 8: 161, 162, fig. 79. 1866-73. Guigne de Winkler. 4. Thomas Cmide Prat. 15, 199. 1876.  This variety is said to be a seedling raised by a Herr Winkler at Guben, Prussia, Germany, about 1816. Fruit attached in pairs, large, roundish-cordate, compressed; suture not prominent; stem long, inserted in a deep, narrow cavity; skin flesh-colored; flesh tender, slightly fibrous, light yellow, juicy, sweet, pleasinly aromatic; pit of medium size, plump, oval; ripens the second week of the cherry season.

Guigne de Chamblondes. P. avium 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 359. 1889. Mentioned in the reference given.

Guigne Chamonale. P. avium 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 151. 1882. Flowers and foliage only described.

Guigne Chavanne. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161. 1882. 2. Mathieu Non. Pom. 359. 1889. Mentioned in the reference given.

Guigne Courte-queue d'Ounins. P.avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:62 fig., 63, 218. 1866. Guigne a courte queue? 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. FranCe 20. 1887.  This variety is said to have originated at Oullins, near Lyons, Fmnce- Tree vigorous, upright. productive; fruit rather large, obtuse-cordate, truncate; stem short to very short, inserted in a shallow, narrow cavity; suture a well-marked line; skin rather thick, glossy, shaded with red changing to deep black; flesh red, tender but not soft, sweet with some acidity, agreeable; quality excellent; pit large for the size of the fruit, ovoid; ripens early in June.

Guigne Ecarlate. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 51. 1831. A worthless, medium-sized, red, oval fruit, with firm flesh, ripening in JuIy.

Guigne de I'Escalier. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 2 4. 876. 2. Guide Prat. 11. 1895. This is a large, brownish-black, French cherry of the Heart class. Fruit with an uneven surface; flesh red, sugary, sweet; first quality; ripens the first of July.

Guigne de Gland. P. avium. 1. Rev. Hort. 213. 1880. Guigne de Gland received its name from the small community of Gland, Aisne, France, where it appears to have been first cultivated. It is one of the first to be found on the markets; is very productive, and of good quality; fruit large, clear red, very sweet.

Guigne Grosse Rouge Hâtive. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc- Cat. 51. 1831. A firm, red, cordate cherry of second quality for table use; ripens in July.

Guigne Grosse Rouge Tardive. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc- Cat. 51. 1831. Listed in this reference.

Guigne Guindole. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 18, 198. 1876. Many writers, including Leroy, believe this cherry to be identical with the Flamentine. Tree vigorous, productive; grown for market; fruit large, elmgated-cordate; skin deep red with carmine mottling on a yellowish ground; flesh tender, soft, juicy, sugary; matures the last part of June.

Guigne Hâtive d'Elsdorf. P.avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27, 198. 1876. A German variety "much recommended."

Guigne Marbrée. P.avium1. Pom. France 7: No. 18. Pl- 18. 1871. 2. Wickson Cal. FrUitS. 286. 1889. 3. Cal. Cong. Pom. France 523. 1906.  The origin of this variety is uncertain. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate; suture wide, shallow; stem of medium length, set in a shallow, wide cavity; skin glossy, white, washed with a rose color changing an to carmine, adherent to the pulp; flesh yellowish, firm, swept, faintly aromatic; pit small, roundish; ripens early in July.

Guigne Marie Besnard. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 5. 1876.  A large, oblong, Heartcherry of good quality; skin light yellow overspread with red; flesh tender, juicy; late.

Guigne de Nice. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 24. 1876. 2. Guide Prat- ". 1895 Fruit very large, oblong, light red; season early in warm years; trees rather tender.

Guigne Noir Luisante. P.avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 208. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862.  Guignier à gros fruit noir luisant- 3. Duhamel Trait Arb. Fr. 1:.162, 163. 1768. Grosse glänzende schwarze Herzkirsche. 4. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:2, Tab. 3 fig. 2. 1792. 5. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 146, 147. 1819. Grosse Guigne noire luisante. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:72 fig. 73, 74, 218. 1866. Guigne Reinette noire. 7. Thomas Guide Prat. 24. 1876. Guigne noire hâtive à fruits. 8. Soc- Nat. Hort. France Pom. 108 fig., 109- 1904. This variety should not be mistaken for the Black Spanishof the Germans although Elliott speaks of it as such with the statement that it was grown in New Jersey about 1823, from whence it was introduced into Ohio. It was known as Guigne Reinette Noire about the provinces of Main and Anjou, France, where it is said to have originated. Some authors have confused it with Hogg's Black Heart from which it differs in being more firm. Tree large, vigorous, productive; fruit large, usually attached in threes, obtuse cordate, Plump; suture wide; stem medium in length, inserted in a rather wide, deep cavity; skin thick, glossy, brownish-red changing to black; flesh colored, tender, fibrous, juicy, sweet, vinous; quality good; pit small, roundish-oval, turgid; ripens the last, of June.

Guigne Noire Hâtive. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 51. 1831.  Guignier a Gros Fruit noir hâtif. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:330 fig., 331. 1877 This old variety originated in France early in the Sixteenth Century. Tree moderately productive; fruit attached in threes, large, obtuse-cordate, irregular; stem long, stout; cavity large; skin becomes reddish-black; flesh deep red, fibrous, juicy, acidulated, sweet; quality fair; pit above medium, ovoid, Plump; ripens the last of May.

Guigne Noire de Monstreux. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat- 24. 1876. Described by M.M. Vérilhac, nurseryman at Annonay, France, as a large, good, productive cherry ripening the first part of June.

Guigne Nouvelle Espéce. P. avium. 1.Lond. Hort. Soc.Cat. 51. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

Guigne Olive. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:79, 80 fig., 81, 220. 1866.  Fruit large, elongated-oval, more pointed at the cavity; suture wide; stem long, slender, set in a slightly deep, abrupt cavity; skin at first rose-colored, marbled with red changing to almost black; flesh tender, colored, agreeably acid, with a slight bittemess; pit very large, oval, resembling the pit of an olive; ripens at the beginning of July.

Guigne Petite Blanche. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc- Cat. 51. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

Guigne Petite Rouge. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 51. 1831. Listed in this reference.

Guigne la Plus Hâtive. P.avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:51-54, fig. 1866. Guigne marbrée précoce. 2. Mas Le Verger 8:115, 196, fig. 56. 1866-73. Guigne d'Annonay. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 15, 197. 1876.  Fruit of medium size, cordate, often slightly elongated; skin thin, mottled with red changing to almost black; stem moderately slender, set in a rather deep, wide cavity; flesh purplish, tender, juicy, agreeably acidulated; pit small, ovoid; ripens the last of May.

Guigne Précoce Leo d'Ounons. P.avium. 1. Rev. Hort. 65. 1881. This variety was found in an orchard near Vigne, France. The fruit is large and sweet with an agreeably aromatic juice; ripens the first half of June.

Guigne Précoce de Mathère. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 1876. Early Mathere. 2. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 416. 1899. Tree vigorous; fruit of medium size, roundish-oval; stem short; skin red; flesh yellowish-red, juicy, sweet; stone small, clinging; early.

Guigne Précoce Ponctuée. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:208. 1866.  A variegated cherry with uncolored juice, mentioned by Mortillet.

Guigne de Provence. P. avium. 31. Thomas Guide Prat. 19- 1876. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:152. 882. 3. Guide Prat. 18. 1805.  Although very siinilar to Transparente de Coë, according to Guide Pratique, 1895, Guigne de Provence is a distinct variety. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; skin reddish-carmine; flesh rather firm, sweet; first quality; matures the last half of June.

Guigne Ramon Oliva. P. avium. 1. Rev. hort. 355. 1888. 2. SOC. Nat. Hort. France POM. 112 fig., 113. 1904. A chance seedling noticed first by M. Charozé, horticulturist, at Pyramide-Trelazé, near Angers, France. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large, usually borne in twos or threes, roundish-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long; color brownish-black, glossy; flesh fine, juicy, sweet; pit large, oval; ripens early in June.

Guigne Rose Hâtive. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 24, 199. 1876. Kleine frühe rothe Herzkirsche. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 164. 1819. Rosenrothe Maikirsche. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:18. 1858. 4. Ill. Handbook. 55 fig., 56. 1860. Guignier à fruit rose hâtif- 5. Noisette Man. Comp. jard. 2:503. 1860.  Guigne Rose Hâtive was received by Jahn from Dochnahl who believed Rheinpfalz, a former palatinate in Germany, to be its home. Tree productive, drooping; fruit of medium size, uneven particularly about the stem, roundish-cordate, sides flattetied; suture indistinct; stem medium in length; cavity shallow; skin rose-colored in the middle of May, later changing to a reddish-purple or black; flesh tender, with colored juice, sweet if ripe; stone rather large, ovate to oval; ripens at the end of May or the beginning of June.

Guigne Rouge Commune. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:152. 1882. The flowers and foliage only are described.

Guigne Rouge Ponctuée. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:89 fig., 90, 91, 218. 1866.  This cherry is similar to Rothe Molkenkirsche but is different in pit. It was found in the province of l'Isere, France. Fruit large to above, depressed at both extremities, flattened on both sides, one of which is traversed by a wide, shallow suture; stem above medium in length, set in a shallow, rather narrow cavity; skin firm, thick, brilliant, changing to deep red, mottled; flesh white, faintly rose-colored especially about the pit, moderately firm, at maturity it loses its sourness becoming sugary and aromatic; pit large, oblong oval; ripens at the beginning of June.

Guigne de Russie à Fruit Blanc. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

Guigne Très Précoce. P.avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 275, 301. 1884.  A Very early, black cherry, a week earlier than the Early Purple. Fruit rather small, obtuse-cordate, irregular in outline; stem long, slender, deeply inserted in a wide cavity; skin quite black: flesh very tender; juice colored; good.

Guigne van der Broek. P. avium. 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:39, 40. 1771.  A very small, juicy cherry similar to the Black Guigne in form, color and taste; some what oblong; dark, brownish-black; of a very sweet, agreeable taste.

Guigne Villeneuve. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Pral. 15. 1876.  Villeneuver Herzkirsche. 2. Proskauer Obstsort. 57. 1907.  This variety is believed to be native to the region around the Auvergne mountains, France. Fruit very large, quadrangular; skin a vivid rose color overspreading a whitish ground; ripens late in June.

Guignier à Fruit Noir et Très-long Pédoncule.P.avium. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:503. 1860.  Obtained from seed and fruited first in 1824. Tree erect, vigorous; fruit small, conical, black; stem nearly four inches long; flesh watery, colored, sweet, agreeably acidulous.

Guignier à Petit Fruit Noir. P. avium. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. jard2:502. 1860. This variety differs from the Grosse Schwarze Herzkirsche only in size of fruit.

Guindoux Noir de Faix. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 26. 1876. Mentioned by Thomas without description.

Gunsleber Späte Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 320, 321. 1819.  A seedling of White Spanish ripening early in August. Fruit small, blushed with light and dark red on a white ground; flesh firm, sweet; unproductive.

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Halbgefülltblühende Weichsel. P.cerasus. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:66, 67. 1858. Schwarze Weichsel mit halb gefüllter Blute. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 606, 607, 608. 1819.  Truchsess says that only the semi-doubles have perfect pistils and the other flowers do not produce fruit. Fruit oblate; stem long, inserted in a shallow cavity; skin thin, tough, glossy, black; flesh tender, fibrous near the stem, with dark juice, pleasing.

Halifax. Species? 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 94. 1854 Halifax is an old variety reported from Maryland.

Hallock. P. avium. Hallock is a supposed seedling of Downer found by Nicholas Hallock, Milton, New York; not disseminated. It resembles Downer in color but is slightly smaller and about two weeks later.

Hallowell. P. avium. 1. Me. Sta. An. Rpt. 22: 175. 1906. Hallowell is a seedling of Black Tartarian.

Hamell Kirsche. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161. 1882. Mentioned in the reference given.

Hamels Arissen. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Hartlib. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. Listed without a description.

Hartlippe. Species? 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 572. 1629. "The Hartlippe Cheriie is so called of the place where the best of this kinde is noursed up, being betweene Sittingbourne and Chattam in Kent, and is the biggest of our English kindes."

Hartz Mountain. Species? 1. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 48. 1874.  This variety was brought from Germany by a Mr. Meyer of St. Peter, Minnesota, with whom it has proved hardy and productive.

Hâtive de Balis. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 362. 1889. Mentioned in the reference given.

Hâtive ou Précoce. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. Listed without a description.

Hâtive de Prin. P. cerasus. 1. Rev. Hort. 280, 281, P1. 1893. 2. Guide Prat. 17, 1895. Priner Frühweichsel. 3. Proskauer Obstsort. 59- 1907.  This variety was introduced by M. Maquerlot of Fismes, Mame, France. lt resembles Montmorencyin shape, with a longer stem. Fruit often borne in fours; cavity deep; skin thin, deep red; flesh of a rose color, transparent, sugary, acidulated, juicy; pit of medium size, orbiculated.

Hätive de St. Jean. Species? 1Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. Listed without a description.

Headley- Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Healy. P. avium. 1. Sweet Cat. 11. 1897.  Healy is an old, sweet variety thought to have come from Pennsylvania; introduced by George A. Sweet, Dansville, New York.

Hedelfingen. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 549. 1901. Hedelfingen Risenkirsche. 2. Ill. Handb. 77 fig., 78. 1860. Colassate d'Hedelfingen. 3. Mortillett Le Cerisier 2,:301. 1866. Géante d'Hedelfingen- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 194. 1876.  Monstrueuse d'Hedelfingen- 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:59, 60, fig. 30. 1882. Bigarreau de Hedelfingen- 6. Gard. Chron. 20: 160. 1896.  This variety probably originated in the village of Hedelfingen, Germany. Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit very large, obtuse-cordate; suture noticeable on both sides; stem very long; cavity deep, narrow; skin glossy, tough, dark brown changing to black, with light red dots; flesh fibrous, dark red, rnore tender than many Bigarreaus, yet firm, juicy, pleasing, aromatic; stone of medium size, long, truncate at the base; ripens in July; good for table, kitchen and market.

Hedwigs Kirsche. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161. 1882. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 362. 1889. Listed but not described.

Heidelberger Kirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wöterb. 290. 1802.  A very dark, black, small, short-stemmed Sour Cherry ripening at the beginning of September.

Heiges. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt. 40. 1895. Heiges is a seedling of the Bigarreau type, from C.E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon, ripening there the last of June. Fruit large, heart-shaped, very smooth; cavity medium in size and depth, regular, flaring; stem short, slender; suture shallow, narrow; skin thin, tenacious, dark purplish-black, with minute golden, indented dots; flesh very dark, pur plish-black, with a few light veins, meaty, tender, juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality best; pit large, oval, semi-clinging.

Heintzen (Heintze's) Frühe Kirsche. Species? 1. Mathieu Now. Pom. 362. 1889. Listed in the reference given.

Henneberger Grafenldrsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 675. 1797. 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 548, 549, 550. 819. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:64 1858. 4. Christ Obstkunde 159- 1791. Cerise du Comte de Henneberg. 5. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:307- 2866.  Fruit of medium size, flattened, without a suture; black when ripe; stem long, slender, shallowly inserted; flesh tender, with a pleasant sourness; ripens in July.

Hensel Early. Species? 1. Horticulturist 22:233 fig. 1867.  Hensel is an accidental seedling found on the grounds of G.W. Zahm, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and named after the former owner of the property. Tree moderate in growth, hardy, productive; fruit roundish, obtuse at the base; stem slender; flesh half tender, juicy; good; ripens the first part of June; not disposed to rot.

Herzkirsche Léona Quesnel. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 362. 1889. Mentioned but not described by Mathieu.

Herzkirsche Trauben. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Cen- 11: 153. 1882 The flowers and foliage only are described.

Herzkirsche Wils Frühe. Species? 1. Lange Allgem. Garten- 439. 1897 Listed without a description.

Herzkirschweichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handbuch. 673. 1797.  According to Christ, this cherry is a Morello; fruit large, with an indistinct suture; stem rather long, deeply set; color reddish-black; flesh teuder, subacid; stone cordate; ripens the middle of July.

Herzog May. P. avium XP. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 330. 1885. 2. Ohio HOrt Soc. Rpt. 22. 1892-93.  Imported by Professor J.L. Budd from Southwestern Russia where it does well on wet, unfavorable soil. Tree open and upright, a true Dukeof the best quality.

Hoadley. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 200 fig. 854.  Hoadley was raised by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, and was named by Elliottin honor of George Hoadley of Cleveland. Tree healthy, vigorous, with a round, spreading head; fruit above medium in size, roundish-cordate; stem of medium length; cavity shallow; skin pale yellow, mottled and striped with clear carmine; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly, almost translucent; pit of medium size; semon the last of June; valuable for table use but will not stand shipment.

Hockenberg. P. cerasus. Mentioned in a letter from H. Back & Sons, New Trenton, Indiana, as resembling an Amarelle; of no particular value.

Hogg Black Gean. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 94. 1866. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; stem long; skin black, glossy; flesh and juice dark, rich, sweet, tender; season at the beginning of July.

Hogg Red Gean. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 84. 1866.  Fruit medium large, roundish, inclined to heart-shape; stem long; skin red, mottled with amber-yellow; flesh yellowish, tender, sweet, rich, with uncolored juice; ripens the first of July.

Hoke. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. U.S.A. Pom. Rpt- 24. 1894.  Hoke is a Duke, long known in York County, Pennsylvania, and regarded as worthy of wider dissemination. It originated at Hanover, Pennsylvania, with Henry Wirt, and was known as Wirt until the farm changed hands in 1848, when it became known as Hoke. The fruit, as grown at this Station, is large, obtuse-cordate; cavity large, deep; skin thick, tough, resisting rot in rainy weather, dark, mottled with red; stem long, moderately thick, swollen at either end; flesh firm, meaty, dark pink, subacid, sprightly; quality very good; stone medium; season the last of June.

Holländische Späte Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 677. 1797. 2. Christ Wörterb. 288. 1802. Holländische Kirsche- 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 597-599. 1819. Holländische Weichsel- 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:65. 1858.  This variety is distinguished from others of its class by its smaller stone, tender flesh, longer stem and later ripening. Tree never large, productive; fruit large, nearly round, sides slightly compressed; suture distinct; stem long; color brownish-red; flesh tender, colored, juicy, very sour; ripens in August but hangs until September.

Holman Duke. P. avium XP. cerasus. 1. Langley Pomona 86, Pl. 17 fig. 1. 1729. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:135, 136. 1832. 3. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 99. 1946- 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:346, 347 fig. 1877. Cerise Royale Tardive D'Angleterre- 5. Ann. Pom. Belge 1: I07, 108, P1. 1853. Cherry-Duck. 6. Noisette Man. Camp. Jard. 2:507. 1860.
Royale Tardive- 7- Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:155, 156 fig., 157, 158, 305. 1866. 8. Pom. France 7:No. 1, P1. 1. 1871. 9. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:162. 1982.  Holman Duke is thought to be of English origin and a seedling of May Duke. The name, Royale Tardive, a synonym of Holman Duke, has been used interchangeably for several Duke cherries. Fruit large to above, roundish-cordate; suture moderate; stem above medium in size, set in a rather deep, narrow, irregular cavity; skin thin, brownish-red changing to nearly black when fully mature; flesh red, fibrous, juicy, vinous, acidulated; pit of medium size, ovoid; dorsal suture not very apparent; ripens the middle of July.

Holman Late Duke. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 1876. Mentioned by Thomas without a description.

Holstein. Species? 1. Mag. Hort. 17:363. 1851 A medium-sized, round, red, seedling cherry,

Homer. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 7-3:71, 72. 1903. 2. Jewell Cat, 35. 1906. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 909.  Homer is a seedling of the Morello type from New Haven, Connecticut, introduced from Homer, Minnesota; said to be valuable in the Northwest. Fruit medium to large, roundish-oblate; stem short, stout; cavity shallow, moderately broad; skin red, becoming darker, thin, rather tough; flesh tender, uncolored, juicy, mildly subacid; pit round, semi clinging; ripens the last of June.

Honey. P. avium. 1. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 251. 1872. Elliott Fr. Book 217. 1854. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 243. 1858. Large Honey. 4. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. Yellow Honey. 5. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 110. 1832. Cream. 6. Horticulturist 1:148- 1846-47. Summer's Honey 7. Cole Am. Fr. Book 228. 1849. Late Honey? S. ibid. 235, 236. 1849.  Honey, though grown only in America, is probably of foreign origin - an old sort renamed. Tree to Black Mazzard but more spreading. Fruit small, roundish oval, yellowish, mottled with red, becoming deep amber-red; stem lmg, slender; flesh tender, melting, juicy, sweet; pit large; season the middle of July.

Honey Dew. P. avium. 1. Conn. Bd, Agr. Rpt. 11:340. 1877 Spoken of as a valuable variety originating in Connecticut.

Honeywood. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. 2. Mag. Hort. 9: 205. 1843 Mentioned as unworthy of cultivation.

Hoppock Yellow. P. avium. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 12:164 1886.  This variety originated in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from seed sown by Comelius Hoppock. Fruit of medium size, cordate, sweet; very productive.

Hoskins P. avium 1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 262. 1892. 2. Ibid. 292, P1. V1. 1893. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 150. 1895. 4. Am. POM. SOC. Cal. 24. 1899. Hoskins originated with C.E. Hoskins, Newberg, Oregon, about 1880, as a seedling of Napolean. Tree vigorous, upright, somewhat spreading; fruit large, roundish-cordate suture a line; stem short, set in a roundish cavity; color dull purplish-red; flesh purple, fibrous, fim, sprightly, sweet; quality good; ripens in mid-season.

Hovey. P. avium. 1. Hovey Fr. AM. 2:25, 26, P1. 185,.2. Mag Hort. 19:405, 406 fig. 27. 1853. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat- 74. 1862. Hovey originated with C.M. Hovey, Boston, Massachusetts, being selected from a bed of seedlings in 1839; first fruited in 1848. For a time it was corisidered a cherry of considerable value but at present it is but little known. Tree very vigorous, upright, spreading, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; stem short, rather stout; skin lich amber mottled with brihiant red; flesh pale amber, rather firm but tender, sprightly becoming sweet; very good in quality; stone shghtly adherent to the pulp, small, oval.

Hoy. P. avium. 1. ChaSe Cat. 12. 1909. 2. ibid. P1. 1910.  A new cherry recently found in one of the suburbs of Philadelphia and introduced in 1909 by the Chase Nursery Company, Geneva, New York, as a very valuable Sweet Cherry. As grown at the Geneva Station it is smaller and no better than Napoleon. Tree vigorous, hardy, healthy, unproductive on the Station grounds. Fruit large, roundish cordate, slightly flattened, with irregular surfaces; cavity deep; suture a line; stem of mediiun thickness and length, adhering to the fruit; skin rather thin, of medium toughness, adhering to the pulp, arnber covered with light red, sometirnes spotted; flesh whitish, juicy, stringy, tender, somewhat meaty, crisp, sprightly, sweet; quality good; stone clinging, roundish, plump; ripens in mid-season.

Hubbard. P. cerasus. 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 437. 1898.  Hubbard is a variety of the Morello class grown about Villa Ridge, Illinois. Tree dwarfish, drooping, bears early, productive; fruit large, cordate, nearly black; precedes Early Richmond.

Hungarian Gean. P.avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 302. 1884. Hungarian Cherry of Zwerts. 3. Parkinson Par. Ter- 574. 1629. 4. Rea Flora 206. 1676.  Although there seems to be a discrepancy in the size of the cherry mentioned by Parkinson and Rea and the one described by Hogg, all three wtiters undoubtedly referred to the same sort. While the first two references describe the variety as exceptionally large no definite statements are made, thus giving strength to the following description madde by Hogg many years later. Tree productive; fruit rather below medium in size,obtuse-cordate; skin amber, mottled with red on the sunny side; flesh white, half-tender, mildly sweet; quality fair; stone large, ovate; ripens in July.

Hyde Late Black. P. avium. 1. Cole Am. Fr. Book 23 7. 1849. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 262. 1857.  This variety originated with T. & G. Hyde, Newton, Massachusetts. Tree strong in growth, productive; fruit medium in size, obtuse-cordate, purplish-black; flesh half-firm, melting, juicy; resembles Eagle but is later.

Hyde Red Heart. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:284. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 175. 1845. Hyde's Seedling. 3. Cole Am. Fr. Book 232. 1849.  Another seedling from T. & G. Hyde, Newton, Massachusetts. Tree vigorous, hardy, spreading, productive; fruit of medium size, cordate; stem short; skin pale yellow, becoming lively red; flesh tender, with a pleasant sprightliness, juicy; season early July.

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Imperial Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 279. 1857. Poitou griotte. 2. Prince Pom. Matz. 2:148- 1932. Imperial. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 209. 1854. Griotte Impériale- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 17, 195. 1876- 5. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 17:9- 1892. Griotte à Courte Queue.6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:284 fig., 285. 1877. Guindoux du Poitou- 7. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 193, 194, fig. 57. 1882. Kaiserliche Weichsel. 8. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 364. 1889. An old variety recently introduced into the Northwest where it has proved very hardy. Tree small, low-headed, productive, bears early; fruit medium to large, roundish-oval; stem very short, shallowly inserted; skin very dark red; flesh tender, juicy, pleasantly acid when ripe; pit small, long, pointed; ripens the middle of July.

Incomparable en Beauté. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Intorka. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 667. 1897.  Intorka is an importation from Russia. Fruit of medium size, round, yellow and flesh firm, yellowish; subacid.

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Jaune de Prusse. P. avium. 1. McIntosh Bk. Gard. 2:5441855. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 466. 1869- 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:93, 94, fig. 47. 1882.  Tree vigorous, productive; fruit small, obtuse-cordate; stem long, slender, inserted in a narrow cavity; skin firm, light yellow, translucent; flesh yellowish-white, tender, juicy, sweet but slightly bitter before it is fully ripe; pit large for the size of the fruit; ripens after Downer.

Jean Arendsen. Species? 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:37- 1771.  According to Knoop, it closely resembles the round Pragische Muskateller in both form and color but is not as good in quality.

Jenkin Black Heart. P. avium 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 47. 1831 Mentioned without description.

Jerusalem Kirsche von der Natte. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:153, 154 1882. Flowers and leaves only are described.

Jerasalemskirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 557-561. 1819. Späte Konigliche Weichsel. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:8, Tab. 19 fig. 2. 1792, 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 561-563. 1819. Späte grosse königliche Weichsel- 4. Christ Handb. 683. 1797. Pyramidenkirsche. 5. Christ wörterb. 291. 1802. Pyramidenweichsel. 6. Truchsess-Heim Kirschesort- 529-531. 1819  The origin of this old variety is unknown but it was chiefly grown in Germany. Tree unproductive; fruit large, oval, with a shallow suture; stem long, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark red, changing to black, glossy; flesh moderately firm, juicy, pleasing subacid; pit large, walnut-shaped, clinging; ripens the last of July in Germany.

Jocosot. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19: 167, 169, 404. 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 197 fig. 1854. Jockotos. 3. Hooper W. Fr. Book 270. 1857.  Jocosot was raised by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, from a pit of the Yellow Spanish and named after an Indian chief. Tree thrifty, round-topped, productive; fruit large, regular, obtuse-cordate, indented at the apex, sides compressed; suture broad; stem long, set in a cavity of medium size; skin glossy, of a dark-liver color, almost black; flesh tender, with indistinct radiating lines, juicy, sweet; pit below medium in size, smooth; ripens the last of June.

Joel Keil Kleine Schwarze Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3: 2 2. 1858.  Fruit small, roundish-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long, slender, shallowly inserted; skin black; flesh rather firm, sweet, juicy, colored; pit oval, clinging; Ripens the middle of July to the middle of August.

June Amarelle. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 330. 885. 2,. Ia. Sta- Bul. 73:72. 1903. Cerisier Juniat- 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 649, 650, 691. 1819. Junitts Amarelle- 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3: 70. 1858. Juniat Amarelle. 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:159- 1882. 6. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt328. 1889. 7. Vt. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:243. 1898-99. June Morello. 8. Ia. Sta. Bul. 19:548- 1892. Truchsess refers to this cherry as having been descrbed by Sickler in 1805. Budd, in his importations of 1893, from Russia, included this variety. Tree of mediuum size, vigorous, rather unproductive; fruit above medium in size, roundish-oblate; stem stout, of medium length; suture indistinct; skin thin, rather tough, separating readily from the pulp, light red; flesh firm, meaty, yellowish, juicy; flavor subacid; quality fair; stone of medium size, somewhat round; season that of Early Richmondwhich it resembles in size, flavor and color.

June Duke. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Hooper W. Fr. Book 269. 1857. Shippen. 2. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 248. 1817. A tart variety similar to May Duke, known about Philadelphia as Shippen and Wetherill. Tree vigorous; fruit large and pleasing; ripens late in June.

Justinische Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 291. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 523, 524. 1819. Justinische Amarelle- 3. Christ Handb. 683. 1797.  This variety is separated from other Sour Cherries ripening with it, through its firm flesh, its straight, shallowly set stem and its astringent, sour flavor. Fruit of medium size, roundish, sides broadly compressed; stem of medium length, rather stout; suture shallow; skin tough, brownish-red; flesh dark red, with clear red juice.

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Kamdesa- P. pumila X P.persica. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. l08: 1908. Noted in the reference as a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Opulent peach. The blossoms show a tendency to double."

Kappenblättrige Süssweichsel. P. aviumX P. cerasus. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:47- 1858 Distinguished from May Duke through its smaller fruit and rolled leaves.

Kassin Frühe Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Lauche Ergäzungsband 601. 1883. 2Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:60. 1900.  Kassin, a vineyardist, in Potsdam, Prussia, Germany, raised this sort from seed. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, sides compressed; suture indistinct; stem of medium length, thick, set in a small cavity; skin dark brown changing to reddish-black, dotted; flesh dark, juicy, sweet; excellent; stone roundish-oval; ripens the first week of the season.

Katie. (P. avium X P. cerasus) X P.avium. 1. Am. Hort. An. 86 fig. 1869. Katie is a seedling ofLouis Philippe crossed with a Mazzard. The tree has the Mazzard habit of growth, yet produces fruit resemblingMay Dukein form and size but deeper in color; flesh tender; matures withDowner.

Kaufmann. P. cerasus, 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 345. 1906.  Kaufmann is a stray seedling of English Morello from Minnesota. It is larger and a little longer in stem than the supposod parent and ripens with the last of the Early Richmond.

Kazan Seedling. Species? 1. V1. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:240. 1898-99. Listed in the reference given.

Kelly. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 253. 1903 A Sweet Cherry from Berrien County, Michigan.

Kemnicott. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 210 fig. 1854.  Kennicott was raised by Professor J.P. Kirtland and named by Elliottafter Dr. A. Kennicott of Northfield, Illinois. Tree vigorous, hardy, spreading, productive; fruit large, oval-cordate, compressed; suture shallow; stem short, inserted in an irregular cavity; skin amber-yellow, mottled with bright, clear, glossy red; flesh yellowish-white, firm, juicy, sweet; pit below medium in size, smooth; ripens about the middle of July.

Kentish Drier. P. cerasus. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. A medium-sized, red cherry of first quality used for culinary purposes; ripening in July. Confused by some with Early Richmond.

Kentish Preserve. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. Listed without a description.

Keokuk. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:167, 168. 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 210 fig. 1854.  Keokuk is another seedling raised by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably crossed with Black Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. Tree vigorous, strong; fruit large, cordate; stem stout; skin dark purplish-black; flesh half-tender, purple, rather coarse; deficient in flavor; pit of medium size; season early in July.

Kesterter Früh Kirsche. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 364. 1889. Listed in the reference given.

King George the Second. P. avium. 1. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. Pl. 6. 1817. 2. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 1:3, P1. 11 fig. 1. 1823.  This variety is distinguished from other black cherries by its uneven surface. Fruit large, with a rich, sweet flavor; ripens the first of June and hangs for six weeks.

King Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 78. 199o. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:60. 1900. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:277- 1903.  King Morello is another of Budd's importations from Russia. Tree very hardy, moderate in growth; fruit large, oblate; stem variable; skin dark red; flesh yellowish- white, firm, sprightly, juicy, good; pit very small; ripens with Early Richmond.

Kirsche von Basel. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 19 fig., 20. 1867 Jahn, in his Handbuch, calls attention to the error in calling this variety Bigarreau Hâtif de Bale as it is not a Bigarreaubut a variegated Heart. Fruit compressed unevenly giving it a cordate appearance, small; suture shallow; apex slightly depressed; stem long, slender, set in a shallow cavity; skin thin, bright yellow washed with pale red, mottled and streaked; flesh pale yellow, soft, with abundant, uncolored juice, pleasing but not bigh in quality; stone large, roundish, slightly pointed; ripens the middle of July.

Kirchheimer. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 290. 1802. 2. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 540. 1901. Kirchheimer Weichsel. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 580-583. 1819. 4111. Handb. 85 fig., 86. 1867.  This old cherry is from Kirchheim, Erfurt, Prussia, Germany. It is propagated by root cuttings and is used for wine and for canning. It is mentioned as growing in British Columbia but is otherwise not spoken of by American writers. Tree large, vigorous, drooping; fruit of medium size, round; suture a line; stem long, slender, shallowly inserted; skin thin, glossy, almost black when ripe; flesh mild subacid, pleasing, juicy; stone small, oval, turgid; ripens at the end of July.

Kirtland Morello. P. cerasus. 1. HortiCUItUriSt 22:202, 293 fig. 1867. Kirtland's Large Morello. 2. Horticulturist N.S. 3:123. 1853. Large Morello. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 210. 1854.  A seedling originated by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio; it thrives in sections of the south and west where Sweet Cherries are generally unsuccessful. Tree vigorous, spreading; fruit uniformly distributed, borne in pairs, large, uniform, roundish; stem short; cavity round, narrow; skin glossy, dark red; flesh tender, juicy, acid; high quality; pit small; ripens early in July.

Kleindienst Braune Knorpel. P.avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 365. 1889. Bigarreau Brun Kleindienst. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:184, 185 fig. 1877.  Leroy, in 1866, stated that this variety was raised from seed by M. Kleindienst, a vineyardist at Guben, Prussia, Germany. Tree moderately productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, large, cordate, flattened; stem long, moderately stout; skin vivid red, changing from grayish-red to almost black; flesh of a whitish-rose color, firm, filamentose, juicy, sugary, acidulated, aromatic; first quality; pit large, ovoid; ripens the last of June.

Kleine Amarelle. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heiin Kirschensort. 644-646. 1819.  Truchsess states that this variety was described by Bütttner in 1797, as Kleine Glas kirsche but that it belongs to the Amarelles. Tree productive; fruit small, globular, pale reddish-yellow; flesh melting, watery; ripens the middle of July.

Kleine Bunte Kirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 248-251. 18l9. Bigarreau à petit fruit rouge hâtif. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1: 166, 167- 1768. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cal. 47. 831. Bigarreautier à petit fruit rouge- 4. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 308-310. 1819. Bigarreau rouge hâtif (petit).5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:243 fig., 244. 1877 Petit Bigarreau Hâtif ? 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 105, l06, fig. 53. 1882. Fruit of medium size, usually attached in pairs, irregular, cordate, flattened on both faces; stem long, slender; skin almost wholly red, occasionally showing streaks of yellow; flesh yellowish, firm, juicy, aromatic; pit of medium size, ovoid; ripens about the middle of June.

Kleine Bunte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 219-222. 1819. Kleine bunte Molkenkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:28. 1958. Fruit small, nearly round, sides compressed; suture distinct; stem long, slender, deeply inserted; skin dull blood-red, with yellow spots; flesh tender, pale yellow, juicy, honey sweet; stone small; ripens at the end of June.

Kleine Frühe Amarelle. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 650-652. 1819.  Fruit small, round, flattened; stem short; suture a line; skin clear red, transparent, tender; flesh tender, pleasant subacid; stone small, adhering more to the stem than to the flesh; ripens the last half of July.

Kleine Natte. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 365. 1889 Listed in the reference given.

Kleine Nonnenkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 585-588. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:65, 66. 1858.  This variety is a seedling of the common wild Sour Cherry. The fruit is the smallest of the Sour Cherries and resembles the black Bird cherries but has a shorter stem. Tree of medium size, drooping; fruit very small, oblate; stem short, shallowly inserted; skin of glossy, black, thin but tough; flesh firm, tender, juicy, with a pecuiiar soumess; stone small, round, adhering to the flesh more than to the stem, stained violet; ripens early in August continuing for three weeks.

Kleine Schwarze Frühe Herzkirsche. P.avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 155, 156. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:20. 1858.  No doubt this variety, the Kleine Schwarze Herzkirsche, and the Black Heartgreatly resemble each other and some writers combine them.

Kleine Schwarze Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wörterb 275. 1802. 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 148, 149- 1819. Mayer's kleine schwarze Herzkirsche- 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:22, 1858.  This variety is distinguished from the Grosse Schwarze Herzkirsche only through its size and later ripening; fruit regular, cordate, somewhat flattened; skin brownish-black; flesh soft, tender; ripens the latter part of July.

Kleine Schwarze Knorpellkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wörterb- 277. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 195-197, 674. 1819.  Distinguished from others of its class through its smallness and firmness. Fruit small, variable, flattened at the ends; suture often lacking; skin very dark brown; flesh firm, dark red, juicy, not unpleasant but not excellent; stone small; ripens early in August; productive.

Kleine Weisse Frühkirsche. P.avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 256-258 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:27- 1859.  Described as one of the first to ripen. Fruit of medium size, oblate, compressed; stem long, inserted in a shallow basin; skin tough, yellowish-white, shaded with red; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; ripens early in June.

Kleiner Früher May Herzkirschbaum. P. avium. 1. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1: 1, Tab. 2 fig. 1. 1 792. Distinguished from the Grosser Früher Mai-Herzkirschbaum by its inferior size and lighter flesh and juice; ripens at the end of May.

Knapp. Species? 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 2. 1889.  This cherry is a seedling from George Knapp, Lafayette, Oregon; introduced by E.R. Poppleton, 1885; fruit of medium size, round, black.

Knight Late Black. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. 2. Mag. Hort. 9:204 1843. Bigarreau-noir de Knight- 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 100. 1876.  Fruit large, black, obtuse-cordate, firm; second quality; ripens at the end of July.

Knudson. P. avium X P. cerasus.  According to a letter from the Utah Experiment Station, this variety was discovered by William O. Knudson, Brigham City, Utah, in 1896. Although similar to Late Duke, further testing may prove it distinct. Tree bears early, hardy; fruit medium to large, bright scarlet; ripens over a long period; used for pies and canning.  [Knudson in 'Cherries of Utah']

Knyasnaia Sjevera. P. cerasus X P. avium. 1.S. P. 1. Bul. 72:519. 1912. 2. ibid. 73:536 P1. 1912.  This is a large-fruited cherry, originated in 1888 by the Russian plant-breeder, I. V Mijurin, at Kozlov, Central Russia, and named "Knyasnaia Sievera,"meaning "Queen of the North."The United States Department of Agriculture introduced it into this country under the number 32674. It is claimed to be a hybrid between an early Vladimir and a variety of Sweet Cherry called "White Winkler." It possesses excellent shipping and keeping qualities. This cherry has stood the severe winters of Central Russia very well and may be expected to thrive in parts of the Middle West and where the climate is more or less semi-arid. Tree vigorous, upright, with few side branches; trunk smooth and clean; fruit large, pale red, with a fresh sour-sweet flavor; ripening about the end of June.

Koch Späte Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:38. 1858. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 365. 1889. Originated about 1851. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate; suture shallow; stem medium long, shallowly inserted; skin glossy, black; flesh firm, Piquant; quality high; stone small, roundish-oval; ripens at the end of August.

Kochs Ostheimer Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Proskauer Obstsort. 59. 1907. Kochs Verbesserte Ostheimer Weichsel, 2. Reut. Pom. InSt- Festschrift 122. 1910. A strong-growing, productive variety, said to exceod its parent, Ostheim, in size, color, and flavor.

Koeper. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 341. 1893 Listed in the reference given.

Kolaki. P. avium. 1. Mass. POM. Gen. 11:29, 30, fig. 15. 1882.  According to Oberdieck, this variety is of Bohemian origin. Fruit of medilum size, cordate, slightly elongated; apex obtuse; suture distinct; stem medium long, slender, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin Moderately firm, transparent, yellow in the sun, purplish in the shade; flesh tinged yellow, tender, juicy, somewhat sugary; first quality; pit small, oval, flattened at the base, obtuse at the apex; ripens the first of June.

Korkovanyer Kirsche. Species? i- Proskauer Obstsort. 56. 1907. Listed but not described.

Koslov. P. cerasus. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:278- 1903. Koslov bush Morello. 2. Call. Hort. 12:216, fig. 58, 218. 1989. Koslov-Morello. 3. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:128. 1900  The Koslov cherries are seedlings, not a single variety. A number of seedlings were imported by the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association in 1889, from Koslov, Crimea, Russia, where they were grown by Russian peasants, being propagated from pits. The trees are low, bush-shaped, slow in coming into bearing and most of the fruit is worthless. The one most grown is moderately large, roundish, pointed at the apex; suture barely traceable; stem long, set in a slight depression; skin dark red, turning black; flesh dark red, tender, juicy, acid; ripens from the last of July to the last of August.

Kostelnice. P. cerasus. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 10, 20, fig. 10. 1882.  Originated in Neustadt, Prussia, Germany. Tree moderately vigorous; fruit medium to below in size, obtuse-cordate; stem short, set in a straight, rather deep cavity; skin tough, vivid purple changing to almost black; flesh tender, juicy, vinous, agreeably acidulated; good; stone very small, ovoid, turgid; ripens early in June.

Kostelniti. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 1l:161. 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Kriek van den Broek. Species? 1. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 165, 166. 1819.  This variety, coming to Truchsess in 1808, from Holland, was confused with several others received at the same time.

Kritzendorfer Einsiedelkirsche. Species? 1. Obstzüchter 8:52. 1910.  An intensely black, large, late cherry which is valued for market because of its color.

Kronberger Kirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ wörterb. 274. 1802. Kronkirsche. 2. Christ Handb. 663. 1707. Kronberg Black Heart. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 124-126. 1819. 4. Mag. Hort. 9: 203. 1843. Kronberger Herzkirsche. 5. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 48. 1831. Wildling von Kronberg. 6. Ill. Handb. 29 fig., 30. 1867. Bigarreau de Kronberg- 7. Guide Prat- 15, 182. 1895.  According to German pomologists, this variety was raised from seed at Kronberg, Prussia, Germany. Tree productive; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate, sides unevenly compressed; suture indistinct; stem long, stout, set in a shallow cavity; skin tough, glossy, black when mature, lighter along the suture; flesh firmer than others of its class, dark red, aromatic, sweet; pit broadly cordate, somewhat adherent; ripcns at the end of June.

Kronprinz von Hanover. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 479 fig., 480. 1861. Prince Royal du Hanovre. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2,:302. 1866. Bigarreau Prince Royal de Hanovre- 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:232 fig. 1877. Prince de Hanovre- 4. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:43, 44, fig. 22. 1882.  Grown by M. Licke, a nurseryman at Hildesheim, Prussia, Germany, fruiting for the first time in 1854. Tree moderately vigorous, productive; fruit large, usually attached in pairs, roundish to pointed-cordate; suture shallow; stem long, slender, inserted in a rather deep cavity; skin rather tender, glossy, yellowish, streaked and mottled with red; flesh firm, yellowish, juicy, pleasingly acidulated; pit medium large, ovate, plump; ripens early in June.

Krüger Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 67 fig., 68. 1860. Krügers schwarze Herzkirsche. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 161, 162. 1819. Krügers Herzkirsche zu Frankfurt. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 52. 1831. Guigne de Kruger- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 18, 198. 1876. 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:77, 78, fig. 39. 1882.  This cherry was first heard of at Guben, Prussia, Germany, in 1910. It is distinguished from Eagle in being larger, shorter stemmed, lighter in color, and less tender in flesh. Tree vigorous, productive, upright; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, oblate; suture shallow; stem medium long, rather deeply inserted; skin dark brown or black; flesh dark red, juicy, vinous, tender, yet often firm; stone small, roundish-oval, plump, adhering slightly to the flesh on one side; ripens about the middle of July.
 

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La Nappe. Species? 1. Proskauer Obstsort. 50. 1907. Listed in this reference.

Lacure (Large). P. avium. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 572. 1629. "The great Lacure or Hart Cherrie differeth not in forme, but in greatnesse, being usually twice as great as the former [Lacure (Small)], and of a reddish blacke colour also: both of them are of a firme substance, and reasonable sweete. Some doe call the white cherrie, the White hart cherrie."

Lacure (Small). P. avium. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 572. 1629. "The smaller Lacure or Hart Cherrie is a reasonable faire Cherrie, full above, and a little pointing downward, after the fashion of a heart, as it is usually pointed, blackish when it is full ripe, and lesser than the next "[Lacure (Large)].

Ladé Late. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:60. 1900. Von Lade's Späte Knorpelkirsche. 2. Lauche Ergänzungsband 605. 1883. Bigarreau Tardif de Ladé 3. Guide Prat- 15, 184. 1895. A German variety probably raised from seed by M. Ladé. Fruit of medium size, long, cordate, compressed at the stem, roundish at the apex; suture indistinct; stem long, thin, slightly curved; cavity shallow; skin yellowish overspread with glossy light red, darker in the sun, faintly streaked; flesh firm, yellowish, sweet, vinous; excellent; stone long, oval; ripens in September lasting a month; productive.

Lady of the Lake. P. avium. 1. Country Gent. 28:398 1866-67. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 467. 1860. Lady of the Lake is a seedling from Charles Pease, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit medium to large, roundish-obtuse-cordate, compressed, with a shallow suture; stem medium, inserted in a deep cavity; skin light yellow, shaded and mottled with bright crimson; flesh half-tender, pale yellow, juicy, sweet, rich; season according to the climate, early May to late June.

Lady Southampton. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 8,5. 1866. Lady Southampton's Yellow. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 53. 1831. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 187- 1845. According to the reference, this is an almost worthless yellow Bigarreau. Fruit of medium size, heart-shaped; skin yellow; flesh pale, firm, rather dry, with uncolored juice, season the middle of July.

Laeder Kirsebaer. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cal. 53, 1831. Mentioned but not described.

Lake. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1909.  Lake was named in honor of Professor E.R. Lake, then of the Oregon Agricultural College, by the originator, C.E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon. The tree came into bearing about 1892 and is reported in the American Pomological Society's fruit list of 1909 as succeeding well in the northwest. Fruit large, sweet, and very good.

Laker or Loker Bunte KnorpeIkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161. 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Lamaurie. P. avium. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 177:3,. 899. Early Lamaurie. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 461. 1869. 3. Wickson Cal. Fruits 286, 291. 1889.  The chief asset of this variety is its earliness for which it is cultivated in England, France and America. The parentage and originator are unknown. Tree of medium vigor and productiveness; fruit large, roundish-cordate, compressed; stem slender; skin thin, moderately tough; color dark reddish-purple; flesh dark red, juicy, stringy, tender, mild, sweet; of very good quality; season very early.

Lampen Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 204, 205, 676. 1819. Lampers Knorpel-Kirsche. 2. Lond. hort. SOc- Cat. 53. 1831. Bigarreau noir de Lampé. 3. Mortillet Le CeriSier 2:302. 1866- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 190. 1876- 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:226 fig., 227, 352. 1877.  A German cherry raised from seed at Guben, Prussia, Germany, in 1810, and named for its originator. Fruit above medium in size, attached in twos and threes, obtuse-cordate; stem slender, set in a wide, shallow cavity; skin thin, rather dark reddish-brown; flesh dark red, rather firm, juicy, sugary, wine-like; second quality; pit large, oval; ripens early in June.

Lancaster. P. cerasus. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 163. 1881. 2. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:II1. 1900.  Lancaster is an accidental seedling on the grounds of Daniel Smeych, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Tree moderately vigorous, more open and spreading than Early Richmond; fruit medium large, heart-shaped to oblate, slightly roundish; cavity deep, broad; stem long, slender; suture very slight; apex small; skin hght red, very thin, tender; flesh white, moderately soft, juicy, sweet with a sprightly flavor; stone roundish, sfightly ovate, partially free; season June.

Langsurer Prachtweichsel. Species? 1. Proskauer Obstsort. 59. 1907. Mentioned in this reference.

Large Black Gean. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831.  A medium-sized, firm, black Heartcherry of poor quality, ripening early in July.

Large Double Flowering. P. avium. 1. Thacher Am. Orch- 217. 1822. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 111. 183 2.3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 199. 1845. Merisziere- 4. Rea Flora 20. 1676. Merise à Fleur Double. 5. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:157- 1768. 6. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 53. 1831. Kramelkirschbaum mit gross gefüllter Blüthe. 7. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:4, Tab. 8. ,792. Herzkirschenbaum mit grosse gefüllter Blüthe. 8. Christ Handb. 668. 1707. Süsskirschenbaum mit ganz gefülter Blüte. 9. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 363-370. 1819. Gefültblühende Süsskirsche. 10. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:18- 1858.  This variety in growth and foliage resembles the Mazzard and Black Heart and not the common double-flowering cherry with its small tree and small, pointed leaves. The flowers which appear at the usual season are produced in the most showy profusion being from one to one and one-half inches in diameter; they are composed of about forty white petals disposed in the form of a rose, with about thirty stamens and a large, abortive pistil. The numerous double flowers, resembling clusters of small, white roses, make the tree a very useful ornamental.

Large Griotte. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:148- 1832, Large Griotte resembles Griotte Commune but is larger and earlier; skin glossy black; flesh dark red, firm, sweet, pleasing.

Large Guindolle. Species? 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:149, 150. 1832. Leaves are deeply indented, double-toothed; fruit large, flattened at the ends, pale red; flesh white, melting, juicy; ripens at the end of June or beginning of July,

Large Heart-shaped Bigarreau. P.avium. 1. Prince POM. Man. 2:129. 1832. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 199 fig. 1854. Bigarreau Gros Monstrueux. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 46. 1831. Bigarreau Gros Coeuret. 4. ibid. 46. 1831. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 453. 1860. Monstrous Heart. 6. Hogg Fruit Man. 78, 87. 1866.  A variety of French origin which was never extensively grown in America. Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate; suture often raised; stem variable, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark, glossy red, nearly black, surface uneven; flesh firm but tender, reddish, pleasant, moderately juicy; good in quality; stone large, oval; ripens the first of July.

Large Late Red Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:128, 129. 1832. Bigarreau à gros Fruit Rouge Tardif. 2. Lond. Hort. SOc- Cat. 46. 1831.  The fruit is somewhat smaller and much later in maturity than that of the Large Red Bigarreau. The color is dark red on the shaded side and on the other a brownish-red, almost black which has given it the name Black Bigarreau; flesh firm, juicy and of excellent flavor.

Large Spanish. Species? 1. Miller Gard. Dict. 1: 1754. Mentioned in the reference given.

Laroses Glaskirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Ill. Handb. 177 fig., 178- 1860. Larose. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:352 fig., 353. 1877.  This cherry was raised from seed in 1826 by M. Larose, of Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, large, obtuse-cordate; sides compressed; suture shallow; stem medium in length, set in a large, deep cavity; skin glossy, tough, mottled with pale red becoming darker; flesh yellowish, tender, slightly fibrous, juicy, mildly acid; pit rather large, plump, oval, flattened at the base; ripens the last of July.

Late Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. HorticultUriSt 2:124. 1847-48. 2. Cole Am. Fr. Book 235. 1849- 3. Elliott Fr. Book 199. 1854. Late Bigarreau was raised in 1842 by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree vigorous, round-topped, very productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, occasionally somewhat angular; stem long; skin attractive yellow, occasionally nearly overspread with crimson-red, delicately blotched or mottled; flesh yellowish, with distinct radiating lines, juicy, firm, crisp, sweet, pleasent; very good in quality; stone rather small, roundish; season late, the same as Downer.

Late Black Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:130. 1832. 2. Mortillet Le CeriSier 2: 192 fig. 25, 193, 194. 1866- 3. Mathieu NOm. Pom. 338. 1989.  This variety differs from Black Bigarreau in being smaller, less heart-shaped, and in ripening later. It was first known as Bigarreau Noir Tardif but Prince, in 1832, at which time he possibly brought it to America, translated the name into English and called it Late Black Bigarreau under which name it is now known in English and American pomologies. Tree large, vigorous, upright, productive; fruit medium to large, cordate; suture indistinct; color dark brownish-red changing to glossy black; flesh purplish-red, with abundant, highly colored juice, very firm, crisp, sweet yet sprightly, aromatic; quality good; ripens in mid-season or later.

Late Gean. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831. According to the reference, this is a small, black Heart of poor quality ripening early in July.

Late Large Black Griotte. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:145, 146. 1832. Worthy of consideration because of its beauty and lateness, often remaining on the tree until October. Tree of mediurn size; branches numerous, slender; fruit large, roundish; stem very long; skin dark red, nearly black; flesh red, very acid and bitter, somewhat milder at maturity.

Late Purple Guigne. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 85. 1866. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 469. 1869. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 24. 1876. A large, dark red, German variety ripening the latter part of July; flesh firm, juicy, agreeable.

Late Richmond. P. cerasus. 1. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:111. 1900. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:73. 1903. The origin of this variety is uncertain but it seems to have been grown in the Middle West about forty years ago. It is supposed to be a seedling of Early Richmond differing from its parent in ripening later, being of better quality, and more upright in growth Fruit round, conical; stem thick, moderately long; cavity shallow, broad; skin thin; flesh tender, with abundant, colorless juice, acid; quality good; ripens a week or ten days later than Early Richmond; unproductive.

Late Ripe. P. cerasus. 1. Gerarde Herball 1504, 1505, fig- 5. 1636. According to Gerarde, this cherry is similar to the wild English cherry in branches and foliage but the flowers are often doubled; fruit small, round, dark red, often dried with the stems on; used by physicians.

Late White Guigne. P. avium 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 13. 1832. Fruit nearly round, with a deep suture; skin whitish or very pale amber, tinged with light red; flesh firm, agreeable; ripens in France in September.

Latham. Species? 1. Ont. Sta. An. Rpt- 3:45. 1896. listed as having been grown at the Simcoe Station.

Laura. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 468. 1869. Laura originated with Charles Pease, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree spreading, upright, productive; fruit medium to large, heart-shaped, globular, often one-sided; stem medium, inserted in a shallow depression; skin pale yellow, largely overspread with rich, bright red; flesh white, juicy, sweet, rich, half-tender; pit medium to small; ripens early in June and hangs well.

Leather Stocking P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:16l, 168. 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 211, 212. 1854.  Leather Stocking was grown by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842, from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; fruit large, heart-shaped, often obtuse; skin faint red becoming a rich reddish-black when fully ripe, with irregular stripes and blotches of black; cavity deep, open; flesh firm, tinged with red, sweet, fair; pit of medium size; season the last of July.

Leib. P. avium. 1. Gard. MOn14:28. 1872. 2. Horticulturist 29:256. 1874. 3. Downing Tr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 163. 1881. This variety was brought from Germany about 1850 and planted in the garden of a Mr. Leib, Galena, Illinois. It resembles Early Richmond and was claimed to be very productive and hardy at the time of its introduction; it has not been widely disseminated. Tree hardy, healthy, upright in growth, bearing abundantly; fruit of a crimson color, sweet; quality good; season the end of June, following Early Richmond.

Leitzkauer. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 287. 1802. Sauer Einmach and Backkirsche. 2. Krünitz Enc. 73, 74. 1790. Leitzkauer Einmackweichsel. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 567-569. 1910. No doubt the name of this cherry arises from the cloister, Leitzkau, in Magdeburg, Prussia, Germany, where it is widely planted. It is propagated by root cuttings and if not pruned, grows tall, weak and drooping. Fruit medium to small, roundish; stem long; skin dark brown to glossy black; flesh reddish, juicy, sour; stone small, red; ripens in August; of little value.

Lemercier. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Hort. Reg. (Am.) 1:343, 344. 1835. 2. Mag. Hort. 13:399 fig., 400. 1847. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 85. 1866- 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 25. 1876- 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:353, 354 fig. 1877. Frühe Lemercier. 6. Ill. Handb. 157 fig., 158. 1860.  Discovered by M. Lemercier in Brabant, Belgium, about 1830; introduced into Paris in 1835 and into America in 1842. It resembles Late Duke with which it ripens. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate; suture shallow; stem long, inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin glossy, transparent, mottled with red; flesh yellowish before ripe, becoming red, firm but melting, juicy, slightly acidulated, with a peculiar fragrance; stone rather large, roundish, truncate at the base, slightly clinging; ripens the last of July.

Léopold (II). Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 367. 1889. Mentioned but not described.

Leopoldskirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 674. 1797. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 564-566. 1819. Griotte de Leopold. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 26, 195. 1876. This variety was received by Truchsess in 1796 from Pastor Winter as Brusseler Bruyn by which name it was called by a few German pomologists. It should not be confused with the presentBrusseler Braune. Fruit large, almost round, compressed on one side; skin dark brown changing to nearly black; flesh dark red, juicy, melting, mild when mature; stone almost round; ripens toward the end of July. The drooping branches, the small, sour cherry leaves which turn yellow and drop and the sweetness in flavor separate it from theGrosse Morelle.

Leschken (Leschkels) Schwarze Knorpel Kirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 367. 1889. Mentioned in the reference given.

Lethe. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt- 40. 1895.  Lethe was grown by C.E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon. Fruit of the Bigarreau type, large, heart-shaped, surface smooth, glossy; cavity medium in size and depth, irregular, flaring, marked by irregular waves; suture shallow; stem very long, slender, curved; skin thin, tenacious, purplish-black; dots minute, indented; flesh very dark purplish-red, firm, meaty, juicy, mild subacid, ahnost sweet; quality good; pit large, oval, semi-clinging; ripens the last of June in Oregon.

Liefeld Braune. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 367. 1889. Guigne brune de Liefeld. 2. Guide Prat. 6, 191. 1895. Tree of rnedium size, very vigorous and productive; fruit large, cordate, brownish, rnottled; flesh red, sweet; of first quality; matures early in June.

Lieke Bunte Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 61 fig., 62. 1867. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 367- 1889. Bigarreau Tardi de Lieke. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 21, 190. 1876. Originated with Herr Lieke of Hildesheim, Prussia, Germany, fruiting for the first time in 1851. The fruit is one of the latest to ripen; large, obtuse-cordate, compressed; stem long, slender, inserted in a rather wide, deep cavity; suture indistinct; skin glossy, tough, yellow, streaked and spotted with a mild red; flesh faintly yellow, firm, sweet with a pleasing sourness, stone small, oval; season late.

Lincoln (I). P. avium- 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 468. 1869. Lincoln is a vigorous, spreading variety, found near Cleveland, Ohio. Fruit large, oblong-cordate, pointed; suture broad, shallow; stem long; cavity deep; skin dark brown when ripe; flesh firm, veined and mottled with shades of red, juicy, sprightly, sweet, pleasant; pit above medium in size; season the first to the middle of July.

Lincoln (II). P. avium. 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 289. 1889. 2. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:29. 1910. Seth Lewelling of Milwaukee, Oregon, raised this variety in 1865, probably from a seed of Eagle. Tree large, spreading, with an open top, seriously affected with black aphis [aphids]; fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate; skin very dark, thick, tough; stem short; flesh firm, deep red, juicy; good quality; pit small, round.

Lindley. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 211. 1854. Lindley was raised by Professor J.P. Kirtland from seeds given him by M. Lindley, Euclid, Ohio. Tree vigorous, moderately prohfic; fruit large, heart-shaped, surface uneven; skin dark purplish-red; flesh almost firm, tinged red, juicy, deficient in richness; season the first of July.

Lipp. P. avium. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:279. 1903. Lipp Late Blood. 2. Green Cat. 29. 1906.  Lipp originated in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Fruit large, dark red or crimson; stem long; flesh and juice very dark, meaty; late.

Litham. P. cerasus. 1. Stone & Wellington Cat. 33. 1907. This is a Russian cherry introduced by Stone & Wellington, Toronto, Ontario. Fruit of medium size; color red; flesh firm.

Little Phil. Species? 1. Wyo. Sta. Bul. 34: 120. 1897. Mentioned as not hardy in Wyoming.

Logan. P. avium. 31. Mag. Hort. 19: 167, 16S. 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 200 fig. 1854. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 24, 201. 1876.  Logan is another of Professor J.P. Kirtland's cherries originating in 1842 from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree hardly healthy, somewhat spreading; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a shallow depression at the apex; stem variable, set in a deep cavity; skin purplish- black when ripe; flesh firm, dark red, with white, radiating lines, juicy, sweet, rich; pit above medium in size, oval; mid-season.

Long Finger. Species? 1. Parkinson Par. Ter- 574. 1629. "The long finger Cherry is another small long red one, being long and round like a finger, whereof it took the rimne"

Look No Further. P. avium. 1.U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 294. 1853.  This variety was introduced into this country in 1815, from the Royal Gardens of Luxembourg, Paris, by Samson V.S. Wilder of Bolton, Massachusetts. Said to be very productive, sweet, large and attractive.

Lord Belhaven White Heart. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 56. 1831. Mentioned but not described.

Lothaunner Erfurter. Species? 1. Mas Pcm. Gen. 11: 16l. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Lothkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ wörterb. 288. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschen sOrt- 595-597. 1819.3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:65. 1858. Fruit large, nearly round, flattened on one side; stem long; skin reddish-black; flesh very tender, red, sour; ripens the first of August.

Louise. P. cerasus. 1. Chase Bros. Cal. 20. 1907. Louise was found about 1887 by the late Lewis Chase in the vicinity of Rochester, New York. Tree hardy, productive; fruit large, dark red, sour; ripens in June.

Louisiana Iron Clad. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 22:682. 1893. 2. ibid. 112: 11. 1908. This cherry originated in Louisiana about 1900 with A.K. Clingman. It is said to be the only cherry which will produce fruit in Louisiana; of the Morello type.

Löwener Frühkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort- 359. 1891. Frühe Englische Kirsche aus Löwen. 2. Ill. Handb. 79 fig., 80. 1867. Hâtive de Louvain- 3. Thomas Guide Prat. I 7, 200. 1876. Lowener Frühweichsel- 4. Proskauer ObstsOrt. 59. 1907.  This variety probablv originated in Belgium nearly half a century ago. Fruit variable in size, often large, sides and ends compressed giving it a square appearance; suture shallow; stem long, strongly inserted in a wide, regular, deep cavity; skin rather glossy, dark brown- ish-red; flesh dark red, tender, juicy, acidulated, refreshing; stone plump, almost round, base abrupt, with a slight depression; early.

Lucien. P. avium. 1. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 1819. 228, 229. . 2. Liegel Syst. Ankit- 157. 825. 3. Mas Le Verger 8:79, 80, fig. 38. 1866-734. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 367. 1889. 5. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:61. 1900. Guigne Lucien. 6. Thomas GUide Prat. 18, 198. 1876.  This foreign variety is planted in Canada but is not known in the United States. It was found by Uellner in Lüneburg, Prussia, about 1806. Leroy is of the opinion that this is the cherry he calls Guigne Carneé Winkler which came out a few years later as a seedling of Winkler from Guben, Prussia.

Ludwig Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 86. 1866. Guigne Ludwig.2. Thomas Guide Prat. 18, 198. 1876- 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:3 26 fig. 1877. Ludwig's Bunte Herzkirsche. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 367, 368. 1889. Ludwig is a seedling obtained by Thomas Rivers of Sawbridgeworth, England, about 1860. Fruit large, cordate, terminating in a sharp point; suture slightly indistinct; stem very long, slender, inserted in a wide ravity; skin glossy, bright red, paler on the shaded side; flesh pale yellow, tender, melting; pit small roundish, plump; ripens the last of June.

Lukeward. P. avium. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter- 572. 1629. 2. Phillips Comp. Gard- 79. 183,.3. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 106. 1846. Lukeward's Heart. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 125. 1832. A variety supposed to have come from Italy which has long since passed from cultivation. Fruit cordate, dark brown or nearly black; ripens early in August.

Lundie Guigne. P. avium. 1. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 43. 1803. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 118. 1832. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 218. 1854. Lundie Guigne is an old English cherry first spoken of by Forsyth in 1803. Tree vigorous, large; fruit medium in size, roundish-elongated, dark purplish-black; flesh tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant; season July.

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McAdow. P. avium. 1. Am. Hort. An. 88 fig. 1869. 2. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt- 32. 1869. McAdow is supposed to be a cross between Black TartarianandElton, grown from seed by Dr. McAdow, Chillicothe, Ohio. Tree vigorous, productive, bears early; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, compressed, without a suture; stem slender, deeply inserted; skin light, pale yellow, overspread and mottled indistinctly vvith light, clear red; flesh firm, yellowish, tender, juicy, pleasant but not rich; quality good; stone medium to large, oval.

MacRoach. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Green-River Nur. Cat. 23. 1899. This cherry was found near Guthrie, Kentucky, on the farm of John MacRoach, where it has fruited for many years and is considered a very good cherry of the May Duke type.

Madame Courtois. P. avium. 1. Rev. Hort335. 1870. Found by Bonamy, a nuseryman, in 1860, upon a farm belonging to the Château of Lamothe, near Puylaurens, Tarn, France. Tree productive; fruit large; skin clear red; flesh tinted with a rose color, sweet, very agreeable; ripens in June-July.

Madame Grégoire. P. avium x P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 26. 1876. 2,. Guide Prat. 18. 1895. This variety is said in Guide Pratique, 1895, to be very similar to Reine Hortense.

Madeleine. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat, 26, 201. 1876. Cerise Commune (de la Madeleine).2. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2: No. 12, P1. 1846. Cerisier de la Madeline. 3. Noisette Man. Camp. jard. 2:507- 1860. Amarelle de la Madeline. 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:205. 1866.  Madeleine is probably a late strain of the old Cerise Communeformerly extensively grown about Paris. Fruit of medium size, roundish, flattened at the ends; suture a line; stem medium in length; clear red changing to brownish-red; flesh whitish, tender, acid; pit small; ripens the last of July; productive.

Madison. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 211. 1854. Madison Bigarreau. 2. Kendrick Am. Orch. 235. 1841. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 367. 1849. Madison's Bunte Herzkirsche. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 368. 1889.  Madison is a seedling of the White Bigarreau, raised by Robert Manning, Salem, Massachusetts. Tree healthy, productive, moderate in growth, spreading; fruit of medium size, regular, heart-shaped; stem rather short, slender; skin heavily dotted and mottled with rich red on amber-yellow ground; flesh yellowish, rather tender, juicy, with agreeable sprightliness; pit small, oval; season the last of June.

Magann. P. avium. 1. New Haven Nur. Cal. 12. 1899-1900. Magann is a hardy, Sweet Cherry originating in Franklin County, Missouri; fruit large, nearly black, borne in large clusters.

Magèse. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 24. 1876. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:327 fig 1877 Magèse was received by Leroy from Florence, Italy, about 1864. Fruit large, attached in twos and threes, obtuse-cordate; stem stout, short, inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin yellow, washed with carmine; flesh yellowish, moderately tender, juicy, sugary, acidulated; first quality; stone small, round, plump; ripens the first of June.

Magnifique de Daval. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:154. 1882. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 368. 1889. The flowers and foliage are described by Mas in his Pomologie Générale.

Magog. Species? 1. Okla. Sta. Bul. 2: 13. 1892. Listed in the reference given.

Mammoth. P. avium. 1. Ohio Pom. SOC. RPt- 10:44. 1862. Kirtland's Mammoth. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 198 fig. 1854. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:31, 32, fig. 16. 1882. Mammuthkirsche- 4. Proskauer Obstsort. 56. 1907. Mammoth was raised, probably about 1842, by Professor J.P. Kirtland of Cleveland, OHIO, from a pit of a Yellow Spanishtree grown apart from other cherries. Tree large, vigorous, round-topped, usually unproductive; fruit of the largest size, often averaging three and one-half inches in circumference, obtuse-cordate, with a large, prominent suture; stem of medium thickness, long; skin moderately thick, attractive clear yellow, blushed or mottled with light red; flesh whitish, with abundant, uncolored juice, fine-grained, with distinct radiating lines, nearly tender, sweet yet almost sprightly; very good in quality; stone roundish-oval, regular; season early.

Mammoth Oxheart. P. avium. 1. Pioneer Nur. Cat. 16. 1905-06. Listed, probably not propagated at present.

Manger. Species? 1. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 211. 1896. -Mentioned without a description.

Manning Early Black. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:282. 1842. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 218. 1854. This variety was grown from a pit ofBlack Heart by Robert Manning, Salem Massachusetts. It differs from the parent only in time of ripening, which is ten days earlier, and in form of tree, which is more spreading.

Manning Early White Heart. P. avium. 1. Kendrick Am. Orch. 243. 1841. Still another seedling raised by Robert Manning, this one coming from a seed of White Turkey Bigarreau. Fruit of medium size, cordate, pale red, amber in the sun, sweet, fine; ripens in June.

Manning Late Black. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:284. 1842. 2. Cole Am. Fr. Book 2,34. 1849. Manning Black Bigarreau- 3. Kenrick Am. Orch- 235. 1841. Black Bigarreau- 4. Bridgeman Gard. Ass't Pt- 3:54. 1847. This is another of Robert Manning's seedlings of the Black Heart. Tree vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate; skin deep purple, nearly black; stem long; flesh purplish-red, firm, rather juicy, sprightly, with a pleasant, luscious flavor; ripens the second week in July.

Manning Mottled. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am . 176. 1845. 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 361. 1849. Mottled Bigarreau- 3. Mag. Hort. 8:283. 1842.  Robert Manning, Salem, Massachusetts, raised this cherry from a seed of White Bigarreau. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit rather large, roundish-cordate, flattened on one side, with a distinct suture; stem slender, inserted in a shallow cavity; skin amber, shaded and mottled with red, with a serni-transparent, glossy appearance; flesh yellow when fully ripe, tender, with a sweet, delicious juice; stone large; season at the end of June.

Maple Heart. P. avium. 1. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. P1. 8. 1817. 2,. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 53. 1831. This a rather firm-fleshed, red Heart of second size and third quality, ripening in July.

Marells Royal. Species? 1. Ariz. Sta. Bul. 15:65. 1895. Mentioned as having been planted in Arizona.

Maria Gaucher. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort. 57. 1907 Listed as a variegated, hard-fleshed cherry.

Marie de Châteauneuf. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 18. 1876. Probably named after the wife of the Marquis de Châteauneuf; fruit very large, obtuse-cordate, purplish-black; flesh rose-colored, moderately firm, juicy, sugary, agreeable; ripens the middle of June.

Marie Thérèse. P.avium. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:358 fig. 1877. This variety originated with M. de Luigné near Châteaugontier, Mayenne, France, and was named after his daughter Marie Thérèse. Tree strong, vigorous, moderately productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish, flattened at the ends; suture broad; stem long, slender; cavity small; skin transparent, firm, red, dotted with wbitish gray; flesh yellow, compact, melting, juicy, aromatic; first quality; ripens the last of June.

Markirsche. P. avium. 1. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:29, 30. 1910. Tree large, upright, open-topped, productive; foliage frequently attacked by aphis; fruit large, dark red, cordate, vith a short stem; skin thick, tender, while the flesh is meaty and deeply stained; stone round, smooth; ripens the third week in July, often hanging on the trees until the middle of August.

Marsotte. P. avium. 1. Guide Prat. 12. 1895. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit medium in size; stem of medium length; skin black; flesh juicy, sugary; used in making Kirschwasser.

Mary. P. cerasus. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 211. 1854. Mary was raised by B.B. Kirtland, Greenbush, New York. Fruit borne in clusters, having a bright, lively red color and a sprightly subacid flavor.

Master White Heart. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 56. 1931. Listed in this reference.

Mastodon. P. avium. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 185. 1894. Black Mastodon. 2. Wickson Cal. FruitS 289. 1889. Mastodon is a seedling of Pontiac and originated with W.H. Chapman, Napa, California; introduced by Leonard Coates, then of the same place. Fruit very large, obtuse cordate, base very broad; cavity large, deep; stem stout, long; skin entirely mottled with pinkish or heavy red; flesh firm, yellowish, tinged with red, meaty, moderately juicy, with a rich, lively sweet flavor.

Matilda. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 262. 1892. Matilda originated with C.E. Hoskins, formerly of Newburg, Oregon. Fruit medium to large, broad-cordate, surface smooth; skin glossy, dark red, nearly black; dots very fine; flesh dark red, firm, slightly, sweet; very good; ripens in Oregon about the middle of June.

Matts. P. avium. J.G. Youngken, Richlandtown, Pennsylvania, writes that this cherry is a seedling of Black Tartarian. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit large.

Mayo. P. avium. 1. Samuels & Co. Cat. 22. 1892. The original tree of Mayo is on the farm of a Mr. Mayo near Jackson, Tennessee. Tree vigorous, hardy, productive; fruit large, amber shaded with red, tender; resembles Wood.

Mazarine. Species? 1. Thacher Am. Orch. 216. 1822. Listed as one of the twenty principal varieties in the United States.

Mednyansky. P. avium. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 177:3,. 1899. Moduyansky. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 185. 1894.  This Hungarian variety was introduced to this country in 1894. In the second reference the name is spelled Moduyansky but in the first it is given Mednyansky which form is deemed best to follow here. Tree upright, spreading, rather vigorous; fruit cordate; suture variable, indistinct on some specimens but a noticeable ridge from the cavity to the apex on others; stem stout, long, inserted in a narrow, deep, irregular cavity; skin very dark purple turning black; flesh firm, rich, sweet, sprightly; quality very good.

Meininger Spälte Knorpelkirsche.P.avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 137 fig., 138. 1860; 2. Oberdieck Obst-Sort- 370. 1981. Bigarreau-tardif de Meiningen- 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 21, 190. 1876.  Tree vigorous, productive, blooniing late; fruit of medium size, cordate, sides compressed; suture shallow; stem slender, variable in length, set in a narrow, shallow cavity; color pale golden-yellow, spotted with pale red, which often conceals the ground color; flesh firm, whitish-yellow, reddish-yellow under the skin, juicy; stone large, oval, usually somewhat adherent; ripens in August lasting until September.

Meissener Weisse. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161. 1882. Mentioned in the reference given.

Merise Grosse Rose Oblongue. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 53. 1831 Probably a small, wild variety.

Merise Petite Ronda. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 53. 1831. Listed without a description.

Merisier Fastigié. Species? 1. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2: No. 3, Pl. 1846. Poiteau was uncertain as to the name of this variety which he noticed in the gardens of M. Cels. Tree very pyramidal; fruit yellowish-amber.

Michigan. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 17. 1885. Michigan is a supposed cross between Black Tartarian andYellow Spanishfruiting for the first time in 1877. It was grown by Stephen Cook, Benton Harbor, Michigan. Fruit large, cordate, slightly compressed; stem long; suture lacking; skin deep red, nearly black; flesh firm, juicy, sweet; ripens early in July. Said to be nearly rot proof.

Miller. Species? 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909. Listed but not described.

Millet. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. P1. 7. 1817. 2. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 1:45, P1. 23 fig. 2. 1823. Described as one of the best black, heart-shaped late Dukes, ripening the last of June and continuing until September; flesh moderately firm; stone small; excellent.

Minnesota. P. cerasus. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:280. 1903. 2. Mich. Sta. Bull. 205:27- 1903. Sprouts of this variety were brought from Sweden to Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, Iowa. Fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; stem long; skin dark red; flesh dark, tender, juicy, subacid; very good.

Minnesota Ostheim. P. cerasus. 1. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:120. 1900. Ostheim.2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 371. 1881. This variety was introduced into Minnesota from North Germany by E. Meyer, St. Petersburg, Minnesota. It is well adapted to cold regions where the Montmorency group does not flourish. Tree upright, dense; fruit large, roundish-oblate, dark red; flesh dark, tender, sweet subacid; good in quality; stone roundish, slightly flattened; ripens the middle of July.

Minnie. P. pumila. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 353. 1896. Minnie is a vigorous seedling of Prunuspumilagrown in Manitoba, Canada; fruit large and good.

Monkirsche Rote. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Monstrous Duke. P. avium x P. cerasus. 1. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:360 fig., 361. 1877. Monstrous Duke is mentioned by MM. Simon-Louis in 1866 as a new sort of the Anglaise Hâtive. lt is probably of English origin, but the name is misleading as the fruit is only moderately large; attached in pairs, globular; stem stout, short, shallowly inserted: skin transparent, yellowish, partly covered with red; flesh yellowish, tender, slightly fibrous, very juicy, sugary, sprightly; pit small, roundish, plump, adhering to the stem; ripens the last of June.

Monstmeuse Hennequine. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 54. 1831. Listed without description.

Montmorency Pleureur. P.cerasus. 1. Guide Prat. 17, 196. 1895. Described as a handsome tree with drooping branches. Its fruit is somewhat similar to that of the Montmorency.

Montmorency de Sauvigny. P. cerasus. 1. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 120 fig., 121. 1904. Cerise de Sauvigny. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 1876. Belle de Sauvigny- 3. Matllieu Nom. Pom. 334. 1889. Schöne aus Sauvigny. 4. Proskauer Obstort- 59. 1907. This cherry is a popular fruit about Paris where it is used for confitures and brandy. Fruit large, roundish, attached in twos or threes; stem short; cavity large, shallow; color dark red; flesh yellow, transparent, slightly fibrous, acidulated; stone small, round; ripens the second half of July.

Montmorency Stark. P. cerasus. 1. Stark Bros. Cat. 4:46. 1913. Montmorency Stark is described as having been produced on the Stark Brothers Nursery grounds, Louisiana, Missouri, from a select tree which bore large fruit.

Montreuil. P. cerasus. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 80:231892. 2. Ibid. 194:41. 1901. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909. Belle de Montreuil. 4. Rev. hort. 451. 1875. Schöne von Montreuil. 5. Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift 123. 1910. This variety was mentioned by European writers as early as 1875 but was not known in America until recently. It is a valuable cherry and was placed on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Tree upright, spreading, vigorous, more productive than Reine Hortense; fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate; stem long, stout; skin mottled red approaching black; flesh tender, light red, with abundant, colored juice, subacid, pleasing; quality good; season July; valuable for dessert and culinary purposes.

Moorhouse. P. avium. 1. Leonard Coates Cat. 10. 1911. Moorhouse is no longer propagated, being inferior to its parent,Napoleon.

Morella Extra Noir. P. cerasus. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cal. 54. 1831. Listed without a description.

Morelia Wye. P. cerasus. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:61. 1900. Listed in this reference.

Morene von Wilhelmshöhe. P. cerasus. 1. Guide Prat. 16. 1895 A very good table cherry ripening the seventh week of the season.

Moreller Langstilkede Sode. P. cerasus. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 54. 1831. Listed without a description.

Morisco. Species? 1. Langley Pomona 86. 1729. Mentioned without description.

Morocco. P. cerasus. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 572 . 1629. "The Morocco Cherrie hath a large white blossome, and an indifferent big berrie, long and round, with a long stalke of a darke reddish purple colour, a little tending to a blew when it is full ripe, of a firme substance; the juice is of a blackish red, discolouring the hands or lips, and of a pleasant taste: some doe thinke that this and the Morello be both one."

Morten Seedling. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882 . Listed but not described.

Mosler Schwarze Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:23 1958. Fruit medium in size, obtuse-cordate, sides compressed; stem long, slender; skin black, tough; flesh dark, tender, very sweet; pit oblong-cordate; ripens the middle of July; productive.

Moyer Honey Heart. P. avium. 1. Horticulturist N.S. 8:22. 1858. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 469, 470. 1869. This variety was grown by Josiah G. Youngken, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Tree healthy, vigorous, productive; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, slightly compressed; suture small; stem long, slender; skin whitish, shaded and mottled with rich red; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet, pleasant; often partially clinging; ripens the middle of June.

Mückelberger Grosse. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 24. 1876. A Sweet Cherry originating in Guben, Prussia, Germany.

Murdock. P. avium. 1. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:289. 1903. Murdock's Bigarreau. 2. Gard. Mon. 28:240, 241. 1886- 3, Reid Cat. 35. 1892. Murdock is thought to have originated in 1887 with John R. and A. Murdock, then of Pittsburg, Pennsvlvania. Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading; fruit large, roundish cordate; cavity deep, Ride, rather abrupt; stem long, slender; skin thin, moderately tough, amber overlaid and mottled with light red; flesh whitish, flesh crisp, somewhat sprightly, juicy, sweet; quality very good; stone clinging, large, ovate, flattened, smooth; ripens early in July, hanging long on the trees; not susceptible to rot.

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Nancy. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 470. 1869. Nancy originated with Charles Pease, Sr., Cleveland, Ohio. Tree upright-spreading; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; stem long, stout, inserted in a large cavity; suture slight; skin  pale yellow, shaded and mottled with crimson; flesh tender, juicy, rich, sweet; very good; stone small; ripens the last of June.

Naples. P. avium. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter- 572. 1629. Neapolitanische Knorpelkirsclte. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:35. 1858- 3. Ill. Handb. 39 fig., 40. 1867. Bigarreau de Naples. 4. Thomas Guide Prat.20, 199. 1876. This is an Italian cherry introduced into Germany, France and England from Florence, Italy. It is very productive and is distinguished by its color and its lateness. Tree vigorous, bears early; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, sides only faintly compressed; suture indistinct; stem of medium length, set in a wide, deep cavity; skin tough, firm, glossy, becoming dark brown or black; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, vinous; stone oval, plump; ripens the sixth week of the season.

Ne Plus Ultra. P. avium. 1. Gard. Mon. 22,: 208. 1880. Ne Plus Ultra was raised by John Mosely of Goodrich, Ontario. It resembles Napoleon but is inferior.

Neapolitanische Molkenkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:331858- Bigarreautier de Naples. 2. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:504. 1860. Napolitaine- 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. This is a large, lemon-colored, rather firm-fieshed variety that should not be confused with Naples. Tree small, vigorous; flesh sweet, pleasing; ripens late in July.

Nebraska Sweet. P. avium. 1. Gage County Nur. Cat. 8. 1906. Listed in this reference as a dark, Sweet Cherry doing remarkably well in Nebraska.

Nelson Kentish. P. cerasus. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 23. 1892-93. Said to be more vigorous in growth and more hardy in bud thanEarly Richmond.

Neue Englische Weichsel. P. cerasus. 3c. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 542, 543. 1819. 2. Ill. Handb. 83 fig., 84. 1867 Neue Englische Kirsche 3. Christ Wörterb. 286. 1802. According to Truchsess, Mayer grew this cherry about 1775. Tree of medium height, moderately productive; fruit often large, roundish, more or less compressed; suture faint; stem straight, medium in length; cavity wide, deep; skin glossy, tender, black; flesh tender, dark red, juicy, pleasing subacid; pit plump, small, oval; ripens early in July.

Neue Ochsenherzidrsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 73 fig., 74. 1860. Herrnhäuser neue Ochsenherzkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:22. 1859. Nouvelle Guigne des Boeufs. 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:301. 1866. Fruit very large, acute-cordate, irregular near the apex; stem long, slender; skin glossy, brownish-black; flesh dark red, tender, sweet, vinous; stone cordate-oblong; ripens the middle of July; not very productive.

Neumann Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 370. 1889. Mentioned in the reference given.

New Century. P. cerasus X (P. avium X P. cerasus).1. Texas Nur. Cat. 10. 1907 New Century is thought to be a cross originating in Grayson County, Texas, between English Morello and some Duke; it was introduced by the Texas Nursery Company. Tree of the Duke type, upright; fruit mediurn to above in size; light red; good. The trees are free from mildew in Texas but do not hold their fruit well.

New Royal. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 54. 1831 Listed without a description.

Nienburger Frühe Bunte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:27 1858. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, sides compressed; stem of medium length, stout, straight; skin yellowish, spotted and streaked; flesh aromatically sweet; pit oval; ripens the middle of June.

Noble. P. avium X P.cerasus. 1. Am. Gard. 20:576. 1890. 2. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard- 44. 1904. This variety is said to resemble May Duke. Fruit large; color deep crimson to darker; flesh firm, colored, rich; late; productive.

Noire des Vosges. P. cerasus. 1. Mas Le Verger 8: 105, 106, fig. 51. 1866-73. Griotte Noire des Vosges. 2. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 98 fig., 99. 1904. This old variety is probably a native of eastern France. The fruit is used for confections and liquors. Fruit attached in pairs, medium in size, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long, slender, set in a shallow cavity; color alrnost black at maturity; flesh dark, tender, vinous, acidulated; stone small, oval, obtuse at the apex; ripens late in July.

Nonpareil. Species? 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 187. 1908 Nonpareil is a black cherry which originated at Vacaville, California.

Norfolk. Species? 1. Mass. Hart. Soc. Rpt. 87. 1872. Mentioned as a seedling cherry grown by J.H. Fenno; not described.

Norma. P. avium. 1. Fruit Grower 19:368. 1908. Norma is a black cherry grown by R.H. Weber, The Dalles, Oregon; it is earlier thanNapoleon.

Northeast. P. cerasus. 1. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bul. 27:11. 1904 Northeast is a rather dwarf cherry of the Morello type; very productive. Said to be valuable as a late market variety but the trees are lacking in vigor and subject to leaf blight.

Northwest. P. cerasus. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 165. 1881. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 25. 1899. 3. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:76 fig. 16, 88. 1903. This is one of the varieties originated by D.B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois, and first distributed by Professor J.L. Budd as Wier's No. 29; the fruit resembles Baldwin. The American Pomological Society placed Northwest on its fruit catalog in 1899 but dropped it in 1900. Tree medium in size, resembling English Morelloclosely both in size and habit, very productive; fruit medium to large, roundish, obscurely heart-shaped; stem long, adhering quite firmly to the fruit; skin tough, medium in thickness, dark attractive red, becoming nearly black; flesh deeply colored, firm, brisk but pleasant acid, mingled with a slight astringency; good in quality; stone small, roundish; season early.

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Occident. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt- 40. 1895. Occident is a seedling of Napoleon which originated with C.E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon. Fruit heart-shaped, above medium in size, smooth; stem long, slender; cavity large, regular, deep, flaring, shaded with pink; suture shallow; skin very dark purplish red, thick, tenacious; dots numerous, small, russet, indented; flesh dark reddish, translucent, ,with white veining, firm, meaty, juicy, mild subacid, rich; good to very good; season late in June; a good shipper.

Ohio Beauty. P. avium. 1. Horticulturist 2:123 fig. 19. 1847-48- 2. Elliott Fr. Book 212. 1854. 3. MOrtillet Le Cerisier 2:93 fig. 18, 94, 95. 18664. Am. Pom. SOC. Cat. 12. 1871. Bigarreau Bauté de l'Ohio. 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:177, 178 fig. 1877. Ohio Beauty probably originated in 1842 with Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio; first disseminated in 1847. The American Pomological Society listed it on its fruit catalog in 1871 but dropped it in 1995. Tree large, vigorous, hardy, very productive; fruit medium to large, cordate, compressed; cavity of medium depth, wide; stem slender, long; skin thin, of medium toughness, light yellow overspread with crimson; dots numerous, light russet, conspicuous; flesh whitish, with colorless juice, tender, meaty, mild, sweet; good in quality; stone clinging, irregular-ovate; season early.

Okiya. P. pumila X P.americana. 1. S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 108:1908. 2. ibid. 130:176, P1. 6. 1911. Okiya is a cross between the Sand Cherry and Gold plum. Fruit roundish, dark red; flesh green; excellent quality.

Oliver. Species? 1. Ariz. Sta. Bul. 15:65. 1805. 2. Neb. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 18. 1900, Oliver is said to be a valuable cherry for home use in Nebraska; slow in coming into bearing.

Opata. P. pumila X P.americana. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 108:1908. 2. ibid. 130: 173, 174 P1. 4, 175, 176. 1911. Opata, a cross between the Sand Cherry and Gold plum which was sent out in 1908. It is a plum in habit of growth, vigorous; foliage large, glossy; fruit one and three-sixteenths inches in diameter, roundish; skin thin, tender, dark purplish-red with blue bloom; flesh green, firm; flavor very pleasant combining the sprightly acid of the Sand Cherry with the rich sweetness of the Gold plum; pit very small; season early, the middle of August.

Oregon. P. avium. 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 290. 1889. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 150 1805. Oregon is a seedling of Napoleonoriginated by H.W. Prettyman, East Portland, Oregon, and named by the Oregon Horticultural Society in 1888. W.S. Failing of Portland introduced it the same year. Tree vigorous, upright; fruit of mediurn size, roundish cordate, irregularly flattened along the suture; stem medium in length, stout, set in a deep, irregular cavity; skin black; flesh firm, very dark, juicy, sweet; later than Napoleon.

Orel. P. cerasus. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 327- 1888. 2. Maine Pom. Soc. Rpt. 145 1889. This name is given to a dwarf cherry similar to Vladimirfrom Orel, Russia. It has small leaves and a close habit of growth; comes into bearing when from three to four feet in height; fruit larger thanMontmorency, nearly black when ripe, mildly subacid.

Orel No. 24. P. cerasus. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 328. 1888. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul.73:77, 78. 1903. This variety was imported by Budd but the name was lost. Some believe it to be Lutovkabut as grown at the Iowa Station it is more like Early Morello in form and size of tree and fruit. Tree smaller and more open than Lutovka; fruit of medium size, roundish-oblate; cavity deep; stem medium in length, stout; suture a faint line; skin thin, translucent, cornelian-red; flesh firm, colored, juicy, pleasingly acid; good; pit round, angular; season the latter part of June.

Orel Sweet. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 19:549- 1892. 2. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:2 1. 1910. Orel No. 26. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 328. 1888. Orel Sweet is known in Europe as Lianzkaja Black; it was introduced into America by Budd as Orel 26; one of the hardiest of Sweet Cherries. Tree large, with a spreading top; fruit of medium size, roundish-oblate; stem long, slender; skin thin, tender, dark red; flesh soft, subacid; pit small, round, stained; ripens the last of July in Washington.

Orleans. P. cerasus. 1. Brown Bros. Cat. 19. 1906. Orleans originated in Orleans County, New York. Probably not propagated at present, although known to many as an improved Montmorency.

Orléa Smith. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:161. 1882. Mentioned but not described.

Osceola. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:167, 168. 853. 2. Elliott Fr. BOOK 200 fig. 1854. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. Professor J.P. Kirtland of Cleveland, Ohio, originated the Osceola in 1842, from a pit of the Yellow Spanish. It was placed on the fruit list of the American Pomological Society in 1862 but was taken from the list in 1891. Tree round, spreading, hardy, healthy, productive; fruit medium to large, cordate; stem moderately stout inserted in a deep cavity; suture deep, broad; color dark purplish-red, inclining to black; flesh dark red, juicy, rich, sweet; pit medium or small, ovate, rounded; season the last of June and early July.

Ostheim (of Morris). P. cerasus. x. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 75. 1890. This is a small, dark colored cherry differing from the Minnesota Ostheim in being later and slightly inferior in quality. Fruit round, compressed; quality fair, lacking in juiciness; pit large; ripens about August 6th in Ottawa, Canada.

Othello. P. pumila. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 3 53. 1896. One of the Canada Experiment Farm's seedlings of Prunuspumila, the Sand Cherry; fruit large, very black, fair.

Owanka. P. pumila X P.americana. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 108:1908. 2. ibid. 130:176. 1911. Owanka, a cross between the Sand Cherry and Gold plurn, was discarded soon after it was sent out because of its bitter skin; tree hardy, productive; fruit one and three-eighths inches in diameter; apex terminated by a minute prickle; skin dark red, with blue bloom; flesh yellow.

Ox Heart (of America). P.avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 24. 1899. Major FranCiS. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 127- 11875. 3. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92,:29. 1910. Coeur de Boeuf nouveau ? 4. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882.  This cherry originated with G.W. Walling, Oswego, Oregon, about 1865, and was renamed in honor of Major Francis of Portland. As yet it is known only in the Northwest. The fruit is of good quality, attractive color, ripening with Black Tartarian, but is readily sought by the birds. Tree very large, vigorous, upright, productive; fruit large, heart shaped, dark red; flesh deelily stained with red, juicy, sweet; quality good; too tender for long shipment; season early.

[Major Francis in 'Cherries of Utah']  

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Pandys Glaskirsche. Species? 1. Proskauer Obstsort- 59. 1907. Listed but not described.

Paramdam. P. cerasus. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 308. 1884 This variety was found nearly a century and a half ago in Paramdam, England. Tree small; fruit small, round; skin pale red; stem an inch long; flesh pale, tender, lively acid, agreeable; ripens the last of July.

Parent. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 302. 1890. Listed in the referenoe given.

Paretzer Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 161. 1882. Listed in this reference.

Pariser Griotte. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 430. 1819. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 371. 1889. This cherry is thought by some to be Duhamel's Griottebut it differs in its more tender flesh, Sweeter taste, and smaller stone.

Parisian Guindoux. P. avium. 1. Prince POM. Man. 2:140. 1832. Tree moderately large; fruit large, pale red; flesh sweet; excellent; ripens the middle of June.

Paul. P. avium. 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 185. 1908. Paul was found by E.V.D. Paul of Ukiah, Oregon; it was propagated and introduced by the Leonard Coates Nursery Company, Morganhill, California, in 1909. Fruit large, black, mottled with dark red; late; a good shipper.

Pauline de Vigny. Spccies ? 1. Mas. Pom. Gen. ll:161. 1882. Listed without a description.

Peach-Blossomed. Species? 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:151. 1832. An ornamental cherry with rose-colored flowers.

Pease. P. avium. 1. Am. Hort. An. 86, 87. 1869. Pease is a black, sweet seedling from Charles Pease, Sr., Cleveland, Ohio. Tree upright; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; flesh purplish, juicy, rich; follows Black Tartarianin ripening.

Perlkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Handb. 667, 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschem SOrt. 237-242. 1819. 3. Ill. Handb. 111 fig., 112. 1860. 4. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:25, 26, fig 13. 1882. 5. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 371. 1889. This variety is often taken for the Yellow Spanish but is distinct. Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit usually large, roundish-cordate, sides compressed; Suture distinct; stem short, shallowly but firmly inserted: skin tough, glossy, resembling Yellow Spanish; flesh moderately tender, juicy, pleasing, sweet; stone rather large, elongated-cordate, nearly free; ripens about the middle of July.

Perlknorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 305-308. 1819. 2. Ill. Handb. 129 fig., 130. 1860. Espagne bigarrée. 3. Knoop Fructologie 2:35, 38. 1771. Perlmarmorkirsche- 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:43. 1858. This Bigarreau, though called a Heart by some, should not be confused with Perlkirsche. Fruit medium to above, roundish-cordate; suture indistinct; stem medium short, shallowly inserted; skin tough, glossy, resemblingYellow Spanish; flesh firm, fibrous, juicy, pleasing, sweet; stone medium in size, plump, oval; ripens the last of July to first part of August.

Petite Morelle. P. cerasus. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2: 182 fig., 183, 184, 216. 1866. This is a small, acid cherry used in northern Germany for wine-making and in the kitchen. Tree vigorous, small, bushy; fruit small, round; suture indistinct; stem short, set in a straight, shallow cavity; color dark red changing to black; flesh red, tender, always acid; pit small, reddish, oval, plump; ripens the fourth week of the season.

Pfitzmann Schwarze Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 372. 1889. Listed in the reference given.

Pierce Late. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:89, 134. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- 45. 1854. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 265. 1857. This variety originated with Arnos Pierce but was introduced by James Hyde and Son, Newton, Massachusetts. Tree upiight, free, round-topped; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate, dark red, mottled with light amber; stem slender, rather short; flesh soft, tender, very juicy, sweet, rich; stone small; ripens the last of July.

Pink Heart. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. BOOK 219. 1854. Pink Heart is a small, pinkish-red, oval Mazzard; stem short; ripens in July.

Planchoury. P. avium. 1. Gard- Mon- 7:248- 1865. 2. Mas Le Verger 8:61, 62, fig. 29. 1866-73. 3. Leroy Dict- Pom. 5:374, 375 fig. 1877. Cerise de Planchouri- 4. Ann. Pom. Belge 6:71, P1. 1858. Kirsch von Planchoury. 5. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 372. 1889. A Dr. Bretonneau grew this variety on his grounds near the River Loire, France. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, flattened at the base, slightly compressed on the sides, completely transversed by a suture; stem long, set in a large, deep cavity; skin glossy, clear red changing to darker red, uniform; flesh tinged with red, semi-tender, sugary, juicy, agreeablv acidulated; first quality; stone large, oval, free; ripens early in July.

Plattgedrückte Schattenmorelle. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 26. 1876. Differs from the English Morello in being more compressed in form.

Plumstone. P. cerasus. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 27. 1909 Plumstone Morello.2. Prince Treat. HOrt. 20. 1828- 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 198 fig. 1845. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. 5. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:120. 1900. The origin of this variety is unknown but it was found in Virginia early in the Nineteenth Century by William Prince who brought it to Flushing, New York. Its name seems to have arisen from the form of the stone. According to Prince, this variety surpasses all of the European Morellos for culinary purposes. Tree vigorous, medium in size, productive; fruit very large, roundish or inclined to obtuse-cordate; stem long, rather slender, straight; skin dark red becoming nearly black; flesh reddish, tender, juicy, highly flavored, sprightly, with pleasant acidity when fully mature; stone long, resembling a plum; season late July.

Plymouth Rock. P. avium. 1. Lovett Cat. 25 fig. 1895. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 169:200. 1899. Plymouth- 3. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 102. 1914. Plymouth Rock is generally believed to have originated with J.H. Black, Hightstown, New Jersey. Tree vigorous, upright, round-topped; fruit above mediun in size, heart- shaped, roundish; skin tender, reddish-amber, with a bright red blush; stem long, slender; cavity narrow, shallow; flesh rather tender, light colored, juicy; pit round, plump, small; season early July.

Podiebrad. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 27. 1876. Podiebrad Bunte Herzkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:29- 1859. 3. Ill. Handb. 21 fig., 22. 1867. Probably a seedling from Podiebrad, Hungary. Tree vigorous, productive, bears early; fruit above medium in size, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; stem long; cavity wide, moderately deep; skin tender, translucent, sulphur-yellow, nearly entirely washed and spotted with red; flesh tender, pale yellow, juicy, sweet, without sourness; stone medium egg-shaped; ripens early in July.

Pointed Guigne. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:119. 1832. This cherry is so named because part of the style becomes hard and ligneous forming a sharp point at the apex of the fruit. Fruit cordate; color red on a yellow ground; flesh firm, crisp, rich, tinged with a slight bitterness; early.

Polsted. Species? 1. Jour. Hort. N.S. 24:412. 1873 Polsted received its name from a parish in Suffolk, England, where it was extensively grown.

Polton Gean. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc- Cat. 50. 1831 Listed without a description.

Pomeranzen. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 479-482. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:53, 54. 1858. Cerise Orange. 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:306. 1866. The narne was given this cherry because of the appearance of the tree which resembles that of the orange. Tree round with a globular head; fruit large, broadly oblate; stem of medium length, firmly set in a deep cavity; suture a line; skin clear, almost brick-red, becoming glossy, darker, and transparent with many white spots; flesh clear, tinged red, with yellowish-white veins, juicy, sweetly acidulated; first quality; stone medium in size, round, turgid, sharply pointed; ripens the middle of July.

Pontiac. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:167, 168. 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 201 fig. 1854. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 60, 89. 1866. Pontiac originated in 1842, with Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Tree vigorous, upright, somewhat spreading, healthy, productive; fruit medium to large, obtuse-cordate, with sides compressed; stem long, slender, inserted in a broad, shallow cavity; skin moderately firm, dark purplish-red, becoming nearly black at maturity; flesh purplish-red, with dark colored juice, rather tender, juicy, pleasant, aromatic, sweet; good in quality; stone medium in size, smooth, separating readily from the flesh; ripens in mid-season.

Pope. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:150. 1832. Some of the fruits of this cherry are green in the middle of July whereas the majority are quite ripe; introduced into France from Italy. Fruit large, round, red; stem very long; flesh similar to but more firm than that of theMontmorency.

Portugal. SpecieS? 1. Rea FlOra 205. 1676. 2. COxe Cult. Fr. Trees 247. 1817. Tree productive; fruit cordate, red; flavor rich and pleasant- ripens early in June.

Powhattan. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 19:167, 168- 1853. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 20l. 1854. 3. Mich. Sta. Bul. 67:23. 1800 This is one of the numerous seedlings originated by Professor J.P. Kirtland, from a pit of Yellow Spanish. Fruit roundish-cordate, uneven in outline, compressed on the sides; stem medium to long; skin brownish-red, glossy; flesh purplish-red, half-tender, juicy, sweet; stone small.

Pragische Muskateller. P.avium. 1. Krünitz Enc. 51, 52, 53. 1790 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 398.102. 1819. Cerise de Prague tardive 3. Knoop Fructologie 2:36, 42. 1771. Muscat de Prague- 4. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 54. 1831. The cherry, introduced into Germany from Holland about 1785 under the name Prager Muskateller, was undoubtedly the variety mentioned by Knoop in 1771, as Cerise de Prague Tardive. with this variety three other sorts were confused; the Cerise Blanche, Cerise Guigne, and the Grosse Ungarische Kirsche, but when fruit was obtained from all, separation was comparatively easy. Tree very productive; fruit large, globular; suture a line; stem rather thick, of medium length; cavity narrow, shallow; skin thin, brownish-red changing to black; flesh tender, melting, juicy, light red, sweet, wine-like; stone oval or roundish; ripens the middle of July.

Précoce de Marest. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 28. 1876. Of doubtful value according to the reference.

Précoce de Sabaret. SpceieS? 1. Gard. Chron. 1068. 1861. 2. Rev. Hort. 335. 870. There seem to be several strains of this cherry; it is one of the earliest cultivated sorts in France, ripening at the beginning of June and lasting a month.

President. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 212. 1854. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 471. 1869. President is another of Professor J.P. Kirtland's cherries raised in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1842. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive: fruit medium to large, regular, cordate, slightly compressed; stem stout, slender; suture indistinct; skin red, lightly mottted with yellow; flesh yellowish-white, half-tender, juicy, sweet; good; pit medium in size; ripens from the middle to the last of June.

Pride of Washington. P.avium X P. cerasus. 1. Wash. Hort. Assoc. Rpt. 95. 1905. This variety is a seedling of theLate Duke grown by J.F. Strong, Spokane, Washington. The tree is more productive and less disposed to seaming of limbs where connecting with the body than its parent and its fruit is also larger, earlier and of better quality.

Priesche Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 162. 1882. Listed but not described.

Prince. Species? 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:36. 1771. Listed but not described by Knoop.

Prince Black Heart. P.avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 471. 1869. This variety was originated by William R. Prince, Flushing, New York. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading; fruit medium to large, cordate, slightly compressed; suture small; flesh purplish, rather tender, juicy, sweet; good to very good; ripens the last of June.

Prince Duke. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Treat. Hort. 29. 1828. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:136. 1832. Prince Duke was raised by William Prince, Flushing, New York, from a seed of Carnationwhich it resembles in tree-characters and in time of ripening. The fruit is red, more compressed than the parent and possesses the peculiar bitterness of Carnation before it is full ripe.

Prince Englebert. Species? 1. Okla. Sta. Bul. 2: 13. 1892. Listed as grown at the Oklahoma Station.

Prince Royal. Species? 1. Rea FIora 205. 1676. According to Rea, this is a large, late ripe cherry, good to preserve.

Princess. P. avium. 1. Knoop FrUctologie 2:36- 1771. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:302. 1866- 3. Mas. Pom. Gen. 11:75, 76, fig. 38. 1882. Prinzesskirsche. 4. Christ Wörterb. 279. 1802. 5. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 261, 262. 1819. This is a variegated Heartoriginating in Germany. Tree of moderate vigor; fruit medium to large, cordate, sides compressed; apex acutely pointed; suture indistinct; stem very long; color yellow overlaid with red; flesh tender, juicy, bitterish at first; stone oval; ripens the fourth week of the season.

Prinzenkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 289. 1802. Grosse schwarze Glanzkirsche incor. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 577-580. 1819 A Morello cherry of German origin. Fruit of medium size, roundish; suture indistinct; cavity shallow; skin tough, firm, glossy, black; flesh firm, fibrous, dark red, subacid; pit adherent, almost cordate; ripens at the end of July.

Prödlitzer Elitekirsche. P.avium. 1. Obstzüchter 8:Pl. 1910. 2. ibid. 8: 51, 52 1910. This cherry originated on the estate of Hugo Graf Kálnokyschen in Prodek, Moravia, Austria. Trees upright when young; fruit large to very large, blackish-brown, obtuse cordate; suture distinct; stem long, slender; flesh dark, sweet with a touch of sourness; ripens in July.

Progress. P. pumila. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 353. 1896. A seedling of Prunus pumila raised by the Manitoba Station.

Proskauer Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Proskauer Obstsort. 57. 1907 A dark, hard-fleshed cherry mentioned in this reference.

Proudfoot. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. BOOK 212. 1854 This variety was grown by D. Proudfoot, Cleveland, Ohio. Tree vigorous, spreading, moderately productive; fruit large cordate; flattened at the base; skin dark purplish-red; cavity open; flesh yellowish, firm, juicy sweet; pit large; season middle of July.

Puhlmann Frühe. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 373. 1889. 2. Proskauer Obstsort. 57. 1907. Listed as an early black Heart.

Punktirte Marmorkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:42. 1858. Punctirte Süsskirsche mit festem Fleische. 2. Christ Wörterb. 281. 1802. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 333-336. 1819. Tree vigourous, upright; fruit roundish-cordate, large; suture deep; stem long, adhering to the stone; cavity deep; color yellowish-white overspread with clear red; flesh rather tender but firm, fibrous, translucent, sweet; pit round, often rather large; ripens at the end of July.

Punktirte Molkenkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:29. 1858. Tree very large, branches long; fruit large, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; color yellow more or less overspread with red; flesh sweet; stone small, cordate; ripens early in July.

Purity (I). P. avium. 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 289. 1889. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 177:31. 1899. Purity (I) is a seedling of Eltonwhich originated with W.H. Chapman, Napa, California and was propagated by Leonard Coates of that place. Tree upright-spreading, fairly vigorous; fruit heart-shaped, compressed; suture broad, rather indistince; stem long, slender; cavity broad, shallow; skin amber, shaded and motteld with bright red, waxy, transparent, thin; flesh rich sweet, tender, juicy, melting; very good; season early; rather too tender for market.

Purity (II). P. cerasus. 1. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 101. 1914. This is a productive cherry of the Morello class which resembles Dyehouseand ripens a little earlier than Early Richmond. Tree moderately vigourous, healthy, bears early; fruit of medium size, roundish; stem long; cavity deep; apex noticeably depressed; skin very dark red; flesh yellowish, tender, very juicy, pleasant subacid; quality good; season late June to early July.

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Quaker. P. avium. 1. USDA Rpt. 262. 1892. Quaker originated with C.E. Hoskins, Newberg, Oregon. Fruit of medium size, heart-shaped, dark red, almost black; dots numberous; flesh firm, dark purple, sprightly, sweet; quality very good; season early July.

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Ranier French. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 55. 1831. Listed without description.

Red Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:35, 38. 1771. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:126. 1832. 3. Elliott Fr. Book 219. 1854. Bigarreau à Gros Fruit Rouge. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 1:163-165, Pl. II. 1768. 5. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 308. 1819. 6. Pom. France 7:No. 7, Pl. 7 1871. Purpurrothe Knorpelkirsche. 7. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 340, 683, 684. 1819.  Large Red Bigarreau. 8. Kendrick Am. Orch. 273. 1832. 9. Prince Pom. Man. 2:127- 1832. 10. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:104, 05 fig., 106,301. 1866. Red Bigarreau is probably an old French variety. Fruit very large, roundish-cordate, irregular, swollen on one side; suture distinct; stem slender, long, set in a deep, wide cavity; color glossy, tough, dark red; flesh firm, sweet, rose-colored especially near the pit, juicy; pit small, oval, adherent along the suture; ripens in July.

Red Canada. Species? 1. Ariz. Sta. Bul. 315:72. 1895 Listed without a description.

Red Guigne. P. avium, 1. Knoop Fructologie 2:3617712. Prince Pom. Man. 2:112. 1832. Fruit more oblong than the Early Guigne and somewhat larger; skin entirely red; flesh soft but not High in quality; ripens in June.

Red Jacket. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 202 fig. 1854. 2. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 148, P1. 13 fig. 1. 1864. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 19, 204. 1876. Red Jacket was used in 1842 by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, crossed with Black Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. It was formerly grown commercially in this country and Europe because of its productiveness and quality. Tree very vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive; fruit large, long, obtuse-cordate; stem rather long, slender; skin thin, pale red becoming rather bright red; flesh yellowish-white, half-tender, juicy, pleasant, somewhat astringent until fully ripe when it becomes sweet; good in quality; stone medium in size; ripens in late mid-season.

Red Muscatel. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 330. 1885. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 329. 1888. A variety from North Silesia where it is said to be commonly grown; fruit large, of good quality.

Red Oranien. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 329. 1888. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul. 19:551. 1892. This name has been given by some writers as a synonym of Carnation but Red Oranien as introduced into America from Russia appears to be distinct and is probably another of the Duke hybrids. Tree productive; fruit large, dark red, mildly subacid.

Red Rock. P. cerasus. 1. Ca . Exp. Farms Rpt- 434. 1905 Fruit of the Morello type, round; stem long, inserted in a noticeable cavity; skin elcar red; fiesh reddish-yellow with colored juice, mild but pleasantly acid, refreshing; ripens late in July.

Red Russian. Species? 1. Kenrick Am. Book. 237. 1841. The original name of this variety was lost in importing it from Russia to Brooklyn, New York, about 1900. Fruit large, dark red, good; productive; ripens in August.

Reichart. Species? 1. Pa. Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt. 1. 1881. Recommended as valuable in Pennsvlvania.

Reine-Hortense Hâtive. P. avium x P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 28. 1876. A seedling of Reine Hortense introduced in 1873. It resembles the parent in many respects, differing, however, in earlier ripening and in having red flesh.

Remington. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 189. 1845. Remington Heart. 2. Prince Treat. Hort. 30. 1828. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 55. 1831. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:117, 118. 1832 . Remington originated in 1823 from a pit planted by Zachariah Allen, Providence, Rhode Island. Its only merit is lateness, not ripening until August; fruit small, cordate, yellow, tinged with red; flesh firm; bears abundantly.

Rentz Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Mo. Bd. Agr. Rpt. 243. 1878 Mentioned as succeeding fairly well in Missouri.

Resacks Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 373. 1889. Listed without a description.

Richardson. P. avium. 1. Cole Am. Fr. Book 238. 1849. 2. Elliott Fr. BOOK 212. 1854. Originated in the garden of J.R. Richardson, Boston, Massachusetts. Tree upright, hardy, productive; fruit large, heart-shaped, rather short, tapering to a point; stem short, slender; skin dark red, inclining to black; flesh deep red, half-tender, rich, luscious, sweet; ripens the last of June to July.

Richardson Late Black. Species? 1. Mag. Hort. 8:285. 1842. Originated in the garden of Dr. William P. Richardson, Salem, Massachusetts. A small, round, black cherry, ripening late in July; very juicy and productive.

Richter Sämling. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 373. 1889. Listed but not described.

Riga No. 108. P. cerasus. 1. Tex. Sta Bul. 16:99. 1891. Listed among the Russian fruits growing at the Texas Station.

Riga No. 109. P. cerasus. 1. Kan. Sta. Bul. 73:189. 1897 Received from Professor J.L. Budd in 1890. Tree upright, unproductive; fruit borne singly, large; stem short; color dark red; flesh and juice colored, pleasant, but lacking in quality; ripens the middle of June.

Rival. P. avium. 1. Gard. Mon. 7:248 1865. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 69, 90. 1866. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 373. 1889. Bigarreau Rival. 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:236, 237 fig. 1877 This cherry probably came from M. Rival, Saint-Genis-Laval, Rhöne, France. Fruit of medium size, borne in clusters, never less than four in a cluster, obtuse-cordate, flattened on one side; suture a colored line; apex shallow, eccentric; stem long, slender; cavity shallow; skin moderately firm, yellow, mottled with red becoming darker, nearly black when mature; ripens the last of July to August.

Rivers Early Heart. P.avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 177. 1845 2. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 204. 1846. A seedling raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, which he says originated about the same time as his Early Amber. The fruit is of the Heart class, medium in size and season.

Roberts Red Heart. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:285. 1842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 176. 1845. 3. Horticulturist 5:76 fig 1850. 4. ibid. 6:21 fig. 1851. 5. Mas Le Verger 8:119, 120, fig. 58. 1866-73.  This variety originated with David Roberts, Salem, Massachusetts, and was first brought to notice by Robert Manning. Fruit of medium size, roundish-cordate, slightly obtuse; suture distinct; stem long, slender, set in a moderate cavity; skin pale amber overspread with pale red, mottled with deeper red and pale amber specks; flesh white, tender, juicy, sweet, sprightly; season at the end of July.

Rochaline. P. avium. 1. Leonard Coates Cat. 10. 1911. Rochaline, a seedling of Napoleon, is no longer propagated, being inferior to its parent.

Rock. Species? 1. Ray Hist. Plant. 1539. 1688. 2. Miller Gard. Dict. 1: 1754 Mentioned as a perfumed cherry.

Rockland. Species? 1. Mass. (Hatch) Sta, An. Rpt. 1:33. 1889. Mentioned as growing at the Massachusetts Station.

Rocky Hill Honey Heart. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:424. 1847. A variety originating near Wethersfield, Connecticut, late in the Eighteenth Century.

Rocky Mountain. P. besseyi. 1. Country Gent. 26:238. 1865. 2. Rural N.Y. 52:138, 330, fig. 46. 1893. 3. Cornell Sta. Bul. 70:261, Pl. I fig. 2. 1894. 4. Storrs & Harrison Cat. 136 fig. 1896. 5. Wis. Sta. An. Rpt. 13:229, 230. 1896. Rocky Mountain, a variety of Prunus besseyi, is a native of the mountains of Colorado having been discovered there many years ago. It is chiefly used as a dwarf ornamental, being adapted to a great variety of soils. Tree small, bushy, averaging about four feet high, very hardy and productive; fruit ripens after all other cherries are gone, small, variable in shape, from roundish to nearlv oblong; color almost jet black; flavor sweet with some astringency but edible when fully mature.

Roe. P. avium. 1. Better Fruit 5: No. 11: 49. 1911. Roe is a seedling from Yamhill County, Oregon, being introduced by the Oregon Nursery Company, Salem, Oregon; it is said to resemble Napoleonbut is much firmer and later.

Romaine. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 26. 1876. A variety of doubtful value; ripens in July.

Ronald. Species? 1. Bunyard-Thomas Fr. Gard- 44. 1904. According to the reference, this is a valuable late variety. Tree small, compact; fruit very large, bright red, transparent; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy.

Röschers Kirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Ill. Handb. I fig., 2. 1867. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 9, 10, fig. 5. 1882. A chance seedling found by a peasant, Röschers, near Heidelberg, Baden, Germany. Fruit medium, oblate-cordate; sides compressed, angular; stem long; cavity wide, deep; skin tough, black; flesh dark red, juicy, vinous; pit small, oval; ripens very early.

Rose Charmeux. Species? 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 75. 1883 A Polish variety introduced by Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, Iowa; fruit large, red, delicate, watery and mild-flavored.

Rosenobel. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 280, 679. 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:27- 1858. An old German variety fruiting for the first time in 1815. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, yellow, streaked with red around the cavity; stem long; flesh white, tender, sweet; stone oval; ripens the last of June.

Rostraver Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Gard. Mon. 28:240, 241. 1886. This variety was introduced in 1887, by the originators, John R. and A. Murdoch, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. The trees, as grown on the Station grounds, are vigorous, moderately spreading; fruit large, blunt heart-shaped; suture indistinct; stem long, set in a large, deep cavity; skin thin, tough, rich yellow, mottled with red, similar toNapoleon; flesh meaty, firm, white, sweet, moderately juicy; season the middle of July.

Rothe Glanzkirsche. Species? 1. Truchess-Heim Kirschensort- 490-492, 689. 1819. Fruit of medium size, roundish-oblate; suture distinct; stem slender, of medium length, set in a shallow cavity; color clear red mixed with darker red, glossy; flesh tender, white, fibrous; excellent; stone large, oval, smooth; ripens from the end of June to the middle of July.

Rothe Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Krünitz Enc. 58, 50. 1790 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 437, 438, 439. 1819. Herzförmige Süssweichsel- 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:48. 1858 Fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; suture indistinct; skin clear red changing to darker red, skin, tough; stem medium in length, set in a deep, narrow cavity; flesh tender, red near the stone, fibrous, vinous; stone broadly oblong, clinging to the flesh; ripens at the beginning of July.

Rothe Maiknorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 286, 287. 1819. Fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, compressed on both sides; suture distinct; stem rather long; cavity shallow; color wholly red on a yellow ground; flesh yellowish-white, rather tender, pleasing; excellent; stone large, cordate, plump; ripens at the beginning of June.

Rothe Molkenkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Handb. 667. 1797. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 229-23 1819. 3. Cerise de petit-lait rouge- 3. Mortillet Le CeriSier 2:302. 1866. Christ grew this variety from seed at Kronberg, Prussia, Germany. Tree productive; fruit of medium size, flattened at the ends and sides; ventral suture distinct; stem rather long; cavity shallow; skin thin, glossy, overspread with light red, darker in the sun; flesh tender, light yellow, juicy, bitter before ripe, sweet when mature; stone roundish, free, tinged with red along the suture; ripens with Black Tartarian.

Rothe Soodkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Worterb. 294. 1802. Soodamarelle. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 632-634. 1819. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 27, 206. 1876. The fruit is borne in twos and threes, below medium in size, roundish, compressed on one side; apex shallow; stem long; color dull blood red, lighter near the suture; flesh melting, dull yellow; juice reddish, abundant, tart; stone small, broad, free.

Rouaanse Kirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 340. 1819. A Heart cherry, clear, light red spotted with red in color; flesh firm.

Rouge Pâle Tardive. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 5 5. 1831 Listed without a description.

Rouge des Vosges. P. cerasus. 1. Mas Le Verger 8:107, 108, fig. 52. 1866-73. 2. Soc Nat. Hort. France Pom. 100 fig., 101. 1904. Cultivated in the region of Fougerolle, Haute-Saöne, France, as the Noire des Vosges and largely used in the manufacture of a liqueur. Fruit usually borne in pairs, large, elongated-cordate; suture distinct; stem long; cavity of medium size; skin glossy, dark red; flesh yellowish, tender, sprightly; stone small, roundish, with a small point at the apex; ripens the last half of July.

Round Sweet. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:61. 1900. Mentioned in this reference.

Royal American. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:62. 1900. Tree strong in growth; fruit large; skin light red becoming darker in the sun; flesh yellowish-white, firm, juicy, agreeable; ripens in July.

Royal Hâtif. P. avium. 1. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:505. 1860. Tree very productive, of medium size; fruit large, compressed at the apex and base; stem green, short, often with stipules; flavor sweet; very good; ripens at the end of May.

Rumsey. P. cerasus. 1. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:122. 1900. Rumsey's Late Morello. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 100 fig. 1845. This very late cherry was grown by Dr. J.S. Rumsey, Fishkill Landing, New York, about 1835. Fruit usually borne in pairs, large, roundish-cordate; suture distinct; stem long; cavity narrow, deep; skin glossy, a rich, lively red; flesh juicy, melting, acid; stone long; ripens from the first part of August until frosts.

Runde Marmorirte Süsskirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wörterb. 290. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 336, 683. 1819. 3. Oberdieck Obst-Sort 382. 1881. 4. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 375. 1889. Weiss und hellroth geflekte grosse Kramelkirsche. 5. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:3, Tab. 6 fig. 1. 1792. Runde Marmorirte Glasskirsche is one of the varieties which has been confused with Napoleon and Yellow Spanish. Tree vigorous, very productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, slightly compressed; suture shallow; stem long; cavity shallow, wide, depressed on the ventral side; on yellow, streaked, dotted and overlaid with red-the amount depending on the exposure to the sun; flesh whitish-yellow, medium firm, juicy, very sweet, sprightly, excellent; stone ovate to oval; matures usually with Napoleon.

Rupert. P. pumila X P.? 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 435. 1901. Mentioned in this reference as being a cross between thePrunus pumila, the Sand Cherry, and a plum.

Rupp. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt- 40, P1. 3. 1895. 2. Mich. Sta. Bul. 187:62. 1901. Rupp is supposed to have originated with Solomon Rupp, York County, Pennsylvania. It was sent to several Experiment Stations for testing by the United States Department of Agriculture. As grown at the Michigan and Geneva Stations it cannot be distinguished from Reine Hortense and we are inclined to believe that the old variety has been overshadowed by a new name.

Russian Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Ont. Dept. Agr. Fr. Ont. 103. 1914. Russian 207. 2. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 76. 1890. Tree upright, vigorous; fruit above medium in size, round, flattened at the base; stem long; skin bright red; juicy; fair quality; ripens the first of August.

Russian Seedlings Nos. 8, 42, 49, 54, 109, 128, 169, 199. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. BuL. 73:80, 81. 1903. These seedlings were grown at the Iowa Experiment Station from selected seeds of Russian varietics. They show every variation from a low, compact, spreading tree to a tall, conical one, while the fruit varies in season from early June to late July.

Russie à Fruit Blanc. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 55. 1831. Listed without a description.

Ryley Black Tartarian. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 55. 1831. Listed in the reference given.

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Sächsische Frühe Maikirsche. Species? 1. Christ Handb. 683. 1797 Listed without a description.

Sacramento. Species? 1. Green River Nur. Cat. 23. 1899 This is a productive variety, resembling May Duke, found near Sacramento, Kentucky.

Saint-Laurent. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:162. 1882. Listed without a description.

Sansoto. P. pumila X P. americana. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul.130:184, Pl. 10, P1. 11, 185. 1911. Sansoto is a cross from the South Dakota Experiment Station between the Sand Cherry and the De Soto plum. In growth the tree resembles that of the plum but the fruit in looks and flavor is more like the Sand Cherry. Fruit is round, about three eighths inch in diameter; skin black with a bluish bloom, thin, free from acerbity; flesh yellowish-green, sprightly; pit clinging.

Sapa. P. pumila X P.triflora. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 108:Pl. 9. 1908. 2. ibid. 130:l76, 177 P1. 7, 178. 1911 Sapa, a cross between the Sand Cherryand the Occident plum, was introduced in 1908 by the South Dakota Station. Tree plum-like in habit; fruit-buds numerous; fruit about one and three-eighths inches in diameter; skin glossy, dark purple; flesh rich, dark purple; season extremely early.

Sappington. P. avium. 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 22. 1892-93. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:282, 1903. Grown about St. Louis, Missouri, where it originated. The tree resembles Mazzardin growth, vigor and productiveness; fruit sweet; early.

Sauerjotte. P. cerasus. 1. Guide Prat. 17. 1805. Listed as a variety of doubtful value.

Saure Herzkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Obstbäume 161. 1701. Described as a black, Sour Cherry of the first rank, with tender flesh and excellent Juice.

Sauvigny Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 91 fig., 92. 1860. Bigarreau de Sauvigny. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:302. 1866. Dure de Sauvigny. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 160. 1882 Fruit large, elongated, obtuse-cordate, compressed more strongly upon the side showing a suture; stem variable, usually of medium length: cavity narrow, deep; skin glossy, dark brownish-red, mottled with lighter red; flesh very firm, dark red, juicy; quality very good; pit small, oval, acutely-pointed at the apex, free; ripens in late July.

Scharlachkirsche. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 660. 1797. This variety is supposed by some to be May Duke. Usually borne in twos and threes; fruit medium in size; stem above medium in length, slender; suture indistinct; ripens the latter part of June.

Schleihahn Sweet. P. avium. 1. Ia. Sta. Press Bul. 28: 1911. Bigarreau de Scheihahn. 2,. Thomas Guide Prat. 20, 190. 1876. A variety of German origin, introduced into Iowa about 1892 and described as a desirable variety for that State by the Iowa Agricultural College. It follows Early Richmond and has a long season. Tree productive, hardy for a sweet variety; fruit of medium size, cordate, sides flattened; stem long, slender, set in a rather deep, wide cavity; skin firm, glossy, surface often pitted; dots numerous, obscure; suture often lacking; color bright deep red, becoming dark red or black; flesh dark red, very firm, moderately juicy, sweet; good; pit above medium in size, pointed, oval, turgid, nearly free; season at Ames, Iowa, from June 20th to July 1st.

Schlössers Schattenmorelle. P. cerasus. 1. Reut. Pom. Inst. Festschrift 123. 1910. 2. Pom. Inst. Reut- 31. 1911-12. Tree vigorous; fruit large, round, dark brownish-red, similar to the Brusseler Braune but larger; sour.

Schmehls. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 549. 190l Tree vigorous; fruit large obtuse-cordate; skin mottled with yellow and pale red; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, pleasing; ripens the middle of July.

Schmidt Bigarreau No. 2. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:62. 1900 Tree vigorous; fruit large, nearly round; skin dark red; flesh red, firm, juicy, sweet; season late June.

Schmidt Frühe Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Lauche Ergdnzungsband 603. 1883 F. Schmidt, Potsdam, Prussia, Germany, grew this variety. Tree fruitful and succeeds in all soils; fruit large, abruptly cordate; suture indistinct; stem medium in length; cavity wide, deep; color glossy dark brown changing to black; flesh firm, juicy, sweet; good; stone medium, roundish; early.

Schneeberger Kirsche. Species? 1. Obstzüchter 8:52. 1910. This is a market cherry grown about Vienna, Austria, ripening about the middle of July and lasting for a month. Some fruits are round, others cordate, depending on the altitude in which it is grown; stem slender; color black; flesh moderately firm, adhering to the pit.

Schneider Frühe Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 376. 1889. Guigne-hâtive de Schneider. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 18, 198. 1876. Tree vigorous and productive; fruit large, cordate, truncate; skin a brilliant brownish black; flesh firm; of first quality; matures early in June.

Schneider Späte Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Oberdieck Obst-Sort. 370, 371. 1881. 2. Lauche Deut. Pom. III:No.8, Pl. 1882. Origin, Güben, Prussia, Germany. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit very large, oval, often cordate, sides compressed; suture indistinct; stem long, inserted in a wide, deep cavity; skin glossy, cherry-red changing to dark brown, with numerous flecks; flesh firm, yellowish, sweet, with slightly colored juice; stone elongated-ovate, large, plump; late.

Schöne von Brügge. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 376. 1889. Belle Brugeoise Saint-Pierre. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159. 1882. Listed but not described in the reference given.

Schöne von Marienhohe. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 57 fig., 58. 1860. 2. Proskauer Obstsort. 57. 1907. Belle glorie de Marie. 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:300. 1866. Belle de Marienhöhe. 4. Thomas Guide Prat. 9, 87. 1876. Beauty of Marienhohe. 5. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 549. 1901. This old variety originated in 1836 from pits planted in the Royal Nursery of Marienhöhe near Weimar, Saxe-Weimar, Germany. Trees strong, healthy and productive; fruit medium in size, heart-shaped, often variable; sides plump; cavity noticeable; apex a small yellowish-brown point in a slight depression; stem slender, green; skin thin, glossy, reddish-black; flesh and juice dark red, tender, sweet; quality very good; pit egg-shaped, smooth without a point, turgid; ripens the first of July.

Schröcks Späte Bunte Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:43 1858. Fruit large, elongated-cordate, compressed, often uneven; suture noticeable; stem long, slender; skin dark red, variegated; flesh firm, vinous, sweet; stone elongated-cordate, adherent; ripens at the end of July.

Schwarze Forellenkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Krünitz Enc. 70, 7l. 1790. 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort- 503, 594. 1819. Tree productive, not large; fruit large, roundish, slightly flattened; stem very long, set in a cavity of medium size; skin glossy, dark brownish-black becoming alrnost black; flesh very red, melting, juicy, sour; stone reddish, one-half inch long; ripens early in August.

Schwarze Maiweichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 285. 1802. 2. Dochnahl Führ,. Obstkunde 3:58. 1858. Schwarze Maikirsche- 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 498, 499, 500. 1819. This variety differs from other Morellos in its very short stem. Tree small, not productive; fruit usually small, roundish, flattened; suture indistinct; stem short; color black when ripe; flesh dark red, juice lighter, sour, becoming aromatic on hanging; stone very small, round; ripens the middle of June.

Schwarze Muskateller. P. avium. 1. Christ Handb. 671. 17972. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 419, 420, 421. 1819. Fruit round, somewhat flattened on one side; stem short; skin and flesh dark red; flesh soft, juicy, mingled with a slight sourness; ripens the latter part of July.

Schwarze Oranienkirsche. Species? 1. Krünitz 56. 1790. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 432. 1819. Schwarze Malvasierkirsche- 3. Ibid, 433, 434. 1819. Fruit large, pitch-black, aromatic; from Holland.

Schwarze Soodkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 286. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 556, 557. 1819.  Branches slender, drooping; fruit of medium size, oblate, sicles flattened; stem slender; cavity shallow; suture a fine line; color almost black; flesh tender, slightly fibrous, dark red at the stone, juicy, pleasingly subacid; stone small, roundish; season the middle of July.

Schwarzbraune Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 198, 199, 200, 675. 1819. Of German origin and first mentioned in 1797. Fruit moderately large, uneven, flattened at the base and sides; stem slender, rather long, deeply inserted; skin brownish- red approaching black, tough, leather-like; flesh firm, sweet, with violet juice when ripe; ripens early in August.

Schwarzes Taubenherz. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 147, 148. 1819. This variety is peculiar in that its stem is green and its fruit has a deep suture on the compressed side; skin very dark brown; flesh tender, soft, bitter, sweet when fully ripe but insipid; ripens early in July.

Sebril. P. avium. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 152: 102. 189p,. Listed as a Sweet Cherry.

Seckbacher. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 167-174 819. 2.171. Handb. 475 fig., 476. 1861. Späte Maikirsche- 3. Christ Handb. 660. 1797. Seckbacher Knorpelkirsche- 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:34. 1858. Cerise de Seckbach. 5.Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 55, 56, fig. 28. 1882. This variety probably originated in Prussia, Germany. Fruit small, round or cordate, compressed, with a faint suture; stem long, shallowly inserted; color glossy, black, lighter along the suture; flesh dark red, firm, juicy, aromatic, piquant; stone large; ripens the middle of June.

Seederberger. P. avium. 1. Col. O. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 31. 1892. Listed as a sweet variety from Virginia and said to resembleYellow Spanish but the fruit is larger and the tree more vigorous.

Select Beauty. Species? 1. Prince Treat. Hort. 30. 1828. A large, red, well-flavored cherry with a long stem; not very productive; ripens in July.

Shadow Amarelle. P. cerasus. 1. Mick. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 326. 1888. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul, 73:82 fig. 1903. Frühe Schattenmorelle- 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:64. 1858. Schatten Amarelle- 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- 75, 1883. 5. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 329. 1885. 6. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12: 126. 1900. Shadow Morello. 7- Ia.Hort. Soc. Rpt- 78. 1890. 8. Lucas Handb. Obst. 3rd Ed. 122. 1893. Professor J.L. Budd of Ames, Iowa, in 1803, imported this variety from south-central Asia. It is very similar to the Brusseler Brauneand Lucas gives it as the same. Whether or not they are idcntical we cannot determine, as the variety is not grown on the Station grounds. The name Schatten is derived from the mirror-like reflection of the glossy skin when exposed to the sun. From the description it seems to differ from the Brusseler Braune in being smaller in size, not so globular, nor as dark in color, a few days earlier, and the tree is more speading in growth.

Shailer. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cal. 55. 1831. A yellowish-red, hard-fleshed Heartcherry of inferior quality; ripens in July.

Shannon. P. cerasus. 1. Elliott Fr. Book202, 203. 1854. 2. Mag. Hort. 19: 167, 168- 1853. Shannon Morello. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 70, 91. 1866. Gov. Shannon. 4. Ill. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 33. 1873. Shannon was raised byProfessor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, 1829, and described in 1849, being named after Wilson Shannon, once Governor of Ohio. It sprung from a Morellotree standing near a Carnation cherry tree and bears fruit of the Morello type. Tree very hardy; fruit above medium in size, globular, flattened at the base; stem long, slender; cavity open; flesh tender, reddish-purple, juicy, acid; pit small.

Shelton. P. avium. 1. Milton Cat. 10. 1911. Shelton is a seedling of Napoleon grown by judge William Shelton of Walla Walla, Washington. Tree hardy, vigorous, upright; fruit smaller than Napoleon; skin pale yellow with a red cheek; flesh sweet, tender, juicy; ripens two weeks before Napoleon.

Short-stem May. Species? 1. Continental Plant Cat. 22. 1914. Merely listed as an old, well-known, productive cherry.

Shubianka. P. cerasus. 1. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 327. 1888. 2. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:83. 1903 Shubianka is an inferior small-fruited cherry of the Vladimir family imported from Russia in 1883 by Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, Iowa. Tree dwarf, round-topped; fruit small, round; stem long, slonder; cavity broad, shahow; skin tough, thick, deep red; flesh firm, juicy, colored, sprightly, astringent with a bitter after-taste; stone round, rather large; season at the end of June; worthless.

Sibrel. P. cerasus. 1. Greening Bros. Cat. 74 fig, 1899 Sibrel is of the Morello type and originated at Bettsville, Ohio; distinguished for its productiveness, lateness, size and quality.

Silver Thorne. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:83. 1903. Silver Thorne is supposed to have originated in Muscatine County, Iowa, about sixty years ago. It resemblesEarly Richmond in tree and fruit but the cherries have firmer flesh and are less acid.

Skublics Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Proskauer Obstsort. 59. 907. Mentioned in the reference given.

Sleinhaus. Species? 1. Mass Pom. Gen. 11:162. 1882. Listed without a description.

Small Black Guigne. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:112. 1832. This cherry differs from Black Guigne in being shorter and inferior in quality.

Small Morello. P. cerasus. 1. Thacher Am. Orch. 217. 1822. A cherry from Salem County, New Jersey; the fruit has a lively acid taste.

Smidt Yellow. Species? 1. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 669. 1897. A good, early, prolific, southern variety. Fruit medium in size, yellow, mottled with red.

Socsany. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt. 41. 1895 Socsany was received from Hungary by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1893 and was sent to C.E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon, for testing. Fruit small, smooth, cordate; suture shallow; stem long, slender; cavity medium in size, irregular, flaring; skin thick, tenacious, yellow, well covered with red, with nurnerous, subcutaneous, oblong dots; flesh yellowish, translucent, meaty, with whitish veins, juicy, sweet, aromatic; stone large, oval, clinging; very good; season the first of July.

Soft-stone Cherry. Species? 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:145. 1832. Soft Sheld. 2. Parkinson Par. Ter- 574. 1629. Cerise à Noyau tendre- 3. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fy. 1:174, 175. 1768. Many writers mention a seedless cherry but Duhamel doubts its existence. He does, however, describe one with a tender, ligneous pit that is easily broken by the fingers. The fruit is round, almost an inch in diameter and very good.

Souths Breite Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 164. 1819. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 25. 1876. A large black, glossy Heart cherry.

Souvenir d'Essonnes. P. avium. 1. Mas Le Verger 8: 109, 110, fig. 53. 1866-73 This cherry was obtained by M. Courtin, a nurser at Essonnes, Seine-et-Oise, France, about 1860. Fruit of medium size, oval, slightly compressed; suture indistinct; stem medium; cavity of medium size, regular; skin tender, mottled on a red ground; flesh wllitish, tender, sweet though sprightly; pit small, oval; ripens the middle of June.

Spanische Frühkirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 149 fig., 150. 1860. Spanische Herzkirsche. 2. Christ Obstbäume 160. 1791. Schwarze Spanische Frühkirsche- 3. Christ Handb. 662. 1797. 4. Christ wörterb, 282. 1802. 5. Truchscss-Heim Kirschensort- 410-413. 1819. Précoce d'Espagne. 6. Mas Le Verger 8:73, 74, fig. 35, 1866-737. Thomas Guide Prat. 16, 204. 1876. Fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, sides compressed; suture wide, deep, often only a line on the dorsal side; stem long, slender, inserted in a shallow, narrow cavity; skin glossy, tough, deep red changing to black; fiesh tender, juicy, sweet, with a pleasing sourness, brownish-red; pit elongated-oval, not plump, rather smooth; season the middle of June.

Spanische Frühweichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 674. 1797- 2. Christ wörterb, 289. 1802. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 500, 501, 502, 1819. Griotte Précoce d'Espagne- 4. Mas Le Verger 8:41, 42, fig. 19. 1866-73 Tree strong, vigorous, productive; fruit above medium in size, roundish, truncate at the base; suture marked on the side most compressed; stem long, moderately stout, inserted in a deep, narrow cavity; skin tender, purplish-brown, changing to black, some- what lighter near the suture; flesh tender, juicy, dark red, with a pleasing acidity; first quality; stone small, roundish-oval, apex pointed; season the last of June

Spanische Glaskirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Ill. Handb. 503 fig., 504. 1861. Grosse Spanische Weichsel ? 2. Christ Handb. 683. 1797. Transparente d'Espagne- 3. Mas Le Verger 8: 101, 102, fig. 49. 1866-73 Fruit large, oblate, compressed on the dorsal side; suture lacking; stem rather long; cavity deep; color dark red; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, acidulated; stone small, nearly round; ripens from the middle to the end of June.

Spanish Griotte. P. aviumX P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:136. 1832. Prince believed this variety to be a sub-variety of Arch Duke which it resembles. The fruit is larger than theArch Duke, oblong, somewhat flattened along the sides; stem verv large, of medium length; skin brownish-red approaching black; flesh red, firm, slightly melting, sweet; ripens at the beginning of July.

Spätblühende Glaskirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 683. 1797. Weichselbaum mit gelb, weiss, und röthiich marmorirte Frucht. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:7, Tab 17 fig. 2. 1792. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 477-479, 690. 1819. Fruit of medium size; stem long, slender; color red; flesh pleasingly subacid; ripens the middle of July; blooms very late.

Späte Maulbeerkirsche. P. avium- 1. Christ Wörterb. 276. 1802. 2. Ill. Handb. 75 fig., 76. 1860. Späte Maulbeerherzkirsche. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 135-140. 1819. Guigne mûre de Paris. 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:83, 207. 1866. Tree vigorous, with a broad crown, productive; fruit variable in size, flattened somewhat squarely; stem long, stout, straight; cavity wide, shallow; skin tough, black, rather dull; flesh tender, reddish-black, with abundant, colored juice, sweet with a piquant sourness; pit round; season the last of July.

Späte Rote Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 378. 1889. Listed without a description.

Späte Schwarze Forellenkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 291. 1902. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 605, 606. 1819. This variety was found in Bernburg, Anhalt, Germany. Tree medium in height, with branches drooping; fruit large, dark brownish-red; very sour; stone very long; ripens in September with a few fruits remaining until October.

Späte Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 43 fig., 44. 1867 Fruit very large, roundish, flattened, angular; suture but a line; stem rather long; cavity shallow; skin glossy, dark red, becoming black, streaked; flesh dark red, firm, sweet, aromatic, with a slight bitterness; stone oval; ripens in late August.

Späte Schwarze Spanische Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Handb. 664. 1797. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 152, 53. 1819 This variety is distinguished from all others of its class by its soft, tender stone; it differs from the Soft-stone Cherryin shape. Fruit elongated, tapering-cordate; skin glossy, dark brown, changing to black; flesh tender, dark red, juicy, aromatic; stone medium in size, flattened, often abortive, with a thin covering over the kernel easily broken by the hand; ripens in late August.

Speckkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Handb. 665. 1797. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 287-289. 1819. Cerise Graisseuse- 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:303. 1866. Cerise Lard. 4. Mas Pom. Gen. ll:81, 82, fig. 41. 1882. This cherry is sometimes mistaken for Corone. It differs from other Bigarreaus  in its variable form. Tree productive; fruit medium to large; stem rather long, set in a shallow cavity; color dark red with lighter red flecks; flesh firm, pale yellow, subacid; stone rather large, nearly free; ripens the middle of July.

Spitzens Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 160, 161, 673, 1819. 2. Ill. Handb. 71 fig., 72. 1860. 3. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:301. 1866- 4. Thomas Guide Prat- 18, 199- 1876. Guigne noire Spitz. 5. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:333 fig. 1877. Bigarreau noire de Spitz. 6. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159. 1882. Spitzens Herzkirsche is a seedling found in Guben, Prussia, Germany, about 1790. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit usually borne in pairs, large, obtuse-cordate, compressed; suture shallow; stem short; cavity shallow; skin glossy, tender, dark reddish-brown changing to black, lighter along the suture; flesh dark red, tender, fibrous, sweet, aromatic when fully ripe; stone of medium size, plump, oval, slightly adherent; season late.

Srdcovka v Skalka. P. avium. 1. Obstzüchter 8:51. 1910. A Heart cherry found in the markets of Brünn, Moravia, Austria.

Stanapa. P. pumila X P.pissardi. 1. S.Dak. Sta. Bul. 130:,190, 191. 1911. Stanapa is a cross between theSand Cherry and Prunuspissardi, interesting only because of its beautiful purple foliage.

Standard. P. pumila. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 353. 1896. Standard is a seedling of Prunus pumila, the Sand Cherry, grown by the Experiment Station at Manitoba, Canada; fruit large, astringent.

Starr Prolific. Species? 1. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 1:22. 1894. Mentioned as growing on the grounds of L. Woolverton, Grimsby, Ontario, Canada.

Strass Early Black. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 473. 1869. 2. Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales 19:996, 1908. Many writers believe Strass Early Black to be Reine Hortense. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit small, partly cordate, flattened on one side; stem of medium length, set in a shallow cavity; skin dark red becoming almost black; flesh reddish-pink, rather soft, sweet, with pinkish juice; stone large.

Strauss. P. cerasus. 1. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:,27- 1900 Strauss Weichsel. 2. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 328. 1885. 3. Can. Exp. FarmBul.17: I 1. 1892. This is not the Strauss Weichsel of Europe but one of Budd's importations. Tree upright, hardy, round-topped, vigorous, unproductive; fruit medium to large, truncate, flattened at both ends; cavity medium; apex smooth; stem short, slender; flesh dark red almost black, firm, juicy, sprightly, acid, astringent; stone small, round; season the last of June.

Strauss Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ Wörterb. 289. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 502-505. 1819. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:59. 18S8, 4. Ill. Handb. 81 fig., 82. 1867 Tree dwarfish, unproductive; fruit on a single stem but several come out of one bud and the buds are closely set; fruit large, flattened at both ends; apex slightly rounded; stem long, thin, straight; color brownish-black; flesh tender, dark red, with abundant, colored juice; quality good; ripens in the middle of June.

Striker. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt- 41. 1895. Striker is a seedling of Napoleon grown by C.E. Hoskins, Springbrook, Oregon. Fruit large, cordate; cavity wide, deep, flaring, pink; stem of medium length, slender; suture shallow; skin thick, tender, glossy, yellow, washed and mottled with red; dots minute, russet, elongated; flesh yellowish, translucent, fibrous, firm, juicy, mild, sprightly; very good; pit of medium size, oval, semi-clinging; season the last of June to early July.

Striped-Leaved. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 151. 1832.Cerasushortenesis foliis eleganter variegatis. 2. Miller Gard. Dict. 1: 1754. Cultivated as an ornamental.

Stuart. P. avium. Stuart originated from nursery-sown pits and was propagated by C.W. Stuart of Newark, New York, who sent trees to this Station for testing in 1900. Tree of medium size, vigorous, productive; fruit large, cordate or inclined to conic, compressed; suture indistinct; stem long, slender; cavity deep, wide, obtuse; skin thin, tender; color fight red over a yellowish background changing to dark, glossy red; flesh whitish, juicy, tender, meaty, crisp, mild, sweet; quality good; ripens in mid-season.

Sucrée Léon Leclerc. P.avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 19, 206. 1876 Guigne sucrée de Léon Leclerc. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:98. 1866- 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:339, 340 fig- 1877. Léon Leclercs Herzkirscke- 4. Proskauer Obstsort- 56. 1907. This variety originated with Léon Léclerc of Laval, Mayenne, France, about 1853 Tree small, productive; fruit of medium size, borne in twos or threes, cordate-ovoid; stem long, slender, inserted in a cavity of medium size; skin deep rose-carmine; flesh whitish, semi-tender, very sugary, aromatic; pit medium in size, elongated-oval; ripens about the end of June.

Summit. P. avium. Summit is a seedling sent this Station by Isiah Lower, Barberton, Ohio. According to Mr. Lower, the tree is vigorous and bears large, dark red cherries, very rich in juice and of a pleasing taste.

Süsse Amarelle. P. cerasus. 1. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:8, Tab. 20 fig. 1. 1792. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 618, 619. 1819. 3. Ill. Handb. 89 fig., 90. 1867- 4. Oberdieck Obstsort. 356, 357. 1881. Späte Amarelle incor. 5. Christ Wörterb. 294. 1802 This variety is probably of French origin. Tree medium in height, bushy, productive; fruit large, flattened on both ends and on one side giving it a four-angled appearance; stem short, stout; cavity flat, shallow; apex slightly depressed; suture short, slightly prominent; skin dark red, thin, tough, separating readily from the pulp; flesh tender, juicy, white, sweet; stone large, thick, round, free; season the middle of June.

Süsse Frühherzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 154, 155, 672. 1819. Fruit rather small, round, compressed and marked by a suture; stem long, slender; color dark brown, becoming black; flesh tender, sweet, piquant; stone large, adherent; season the end of June.

Süsse Frühweichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Christ wörterb. 288. 1802. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 536-538. 1819. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 379. 1889. Cerise Hâtive- 4. Mas Le Verger 8:23, 24, fig. 10. 1866-73. This cherry should not be confused with the dark-fleshed variety,Griotte Douce Précoce. Branches long, flexible; fruit usually borne in twos or threes, of medium size, roundish, flattened; suture rather distinct; stem short, set in a large cavity; skin tcnder, clear red becoming darker; flesh whitish, mild; stone small, roundish; ripens early in June.

Süsse Maiherzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Handb. 662. 1797. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 1l1-115. 1819. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:19. 1858. Fruit round, medium in size; suture indistinct; skin black; flesh dark red, piquant; stone small, plump, roundish, adherent along the suture; season the middle of June to July.

Süsse Spanische. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 233-235. 18'9 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 18, 206. 876. Donce d'Espagne- 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:21, 22, fig. 11. 1882. This cherry was sent out by Pastor Winter of Germany in 1796 as a seedling of White Spanish. Fruit above medium to large, cordate; sides compressed and marked by a suture; stem rather long, slender, set in a narrow cavity; skin dull yellow, spotted with red, often dull; flesh whitish-yellow with a reddish tinge near the skin, tender, sweet; stone small, broadly cordate, adherent; season late.

Süsskirsche mit Gefurster Bluthe. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 162. 1992. Listed without a description.

Sweedish. P. avium. 1. Cultivator N.S. 7:270. 1850. Sweedish is one of Professor J.P. Kirtland's varieties, possibly identical with White Heart. Its strikingly rugose or wrinkled surface distinguishes it from other cherries.

Sweet Montmorency. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:2841842. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 193 fig. 1845. Allen's Sweet Montmorency. 3. Bridgeman Gard. Ass't Pt- 3: 183. 1847 The fruit of this variety resemblesMontmorency in external appearance but it is of a sweet, delicate flavor and the growth and habit of the tree is that of a Heart.Probably it is a hybrid between a Heart and a MorelloorMontmorency. It was raised by J.F. Allen, Salem, Massachusetts. Tree vigorous, somewhat spreading; fruit rather small, nearly round; suture shallow; stem short; cavity shallow; skin pale amber in the shade, deep orange in the sun, becoming darker, and mottled with yellow; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, high quality; stone small, round, slightly adherent; season the last of July to August.

Sweet Morello. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 54. 1831. Mentioned in the reference given.

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Tarascon Kirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb. 5 fig., 6. 1867. Guigne de Tarascon. 2. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:59-61, fig. 4, 219. 1866. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 18, 190. 1876- 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:336, 337 fig. 1877. Tarascon Kirsche originated in Bouches-du-Rhone, France. Tree of medium height, moderately vigorous; fruit rather large, usually attached by fours, obtuse-cordate, surface ip. irregular; suture indistinct; stem rather slender, medium in length; cavity often shallow; skin glossy, changing to nearly black; flesh colored, juicy, tender, sweet; ripens late in June.

Tardive d'Avignon. P. avium. 1. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:153, 154 fig. 39, 155. 1866. 2. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:395, 396 fig. 1877 This variety is grown at Avignon, Vaucluse, France. Tree vigorous, large; fruit usually attached in pairs, of medium size, compressed at the base, mamelon at the apex; suture indistinct; stem very long, slender, set in a broad, shallow cavity; apex prominent; skin thin but firm, dark glossy red, never becoming black, easily detached from the pulp; flesh clear blood-red netted with white, tender, juicy, sweet, with pronounced acidity; first quality; pit small, roundish, moderately grooved; rnatures at the beginning of July.

Tardive de Brederode. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 156. 1882. Leaves and flowers described.

Tardive Noire dEspagne. Specics? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:162. 1882. Mentioned in the reference given.

Tardive de Peine. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 162. 1882. Listed without a description.

Tecumseh. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 203. 1854. 2. Mag. Hort. 19:167, 168. 1853. 3. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:65, 66, fig. 33. 1992. Tecumseh was raised in 1842 by Professor J.P. Kirtland, Cleveland, Ohio, from a pit of Yellow Spanish, probably fertilized by Black Tartarian, Black Mazzard, or May Duke. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading, hardy, productive; fruit medium to large, obtuse cordate, compressed, with a broad, shallow suture; stem long, moderately thick; skin thin, tender, deep reddish-purple changing to purplish-black, glossy, sometimes mottled with red; flesh reddish-purple, rather tender, very juicy, sweet yet sprightly but not high flavored; quality good; stone medium in size, smooth, round, slightly elongated; ripens from the middle to the end of July.

Temple. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Col. 0. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 31. 1802. Temple is a large Duke, subacid in flavor, ripening about June 10th. Tree an upright grower.

Terry. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 169. 1897- 2. Del. Sta. An. Rpt. 12:122. 1900. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:283. 1903 Terry Early. 4. Stark Bros. Cat. 21. 1910. Terry was probably imported by H.A. Terry, Crescent, Iowa, from Russia. Tree moderately upright, hardy; fruit of medium size, roundish, flattened laterally; suture indistinct; stem medium long; cavity shallow; skin tough, slightly astringent, deep red; flesh meaty, subacid, colored; stone small, roundish; ripens the middlc of June.

Thirty Day. Species? 1. Col. 0. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 9. 1890. Thirty Day is said to ripen thirty days from the time of blossoming. It was grown by a Mr. Irwin of Fairfield County, Ohio; fruit large and of excellent quality.

Thompson. P. avium. 1. Wickson Cal. Fruits 290. 1889. Thompson is a seedling of Black Tartarian, which it closely resembles, from Napa County, California. Tree hardier and the fruit firmer than Black Tartarian.

Thränen Muskatellerkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Handb. 683. 1797. 2. Truchsess Heim Kirschensort. 174-177- 8,9.3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:35. 1858. Bigarreautier à rameaux pendants- 4. Ann. Pom. Belge 4:85, 86, P1. 1856. 5. Leroy Dict- Pom. 5:233 fig., 234. 1877. Muscat des Larmes. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:301. 1866. This old variety is said to have been introduced into Germany and France from the Island of Minorca in the Mediterranean. The branches very soon take on a drooping habit whence its name; leaves long and narrow, peach-like; fruit large, often borne in pairs, flattened at the stem as well as at the sides, marked by a suture; skin dark brownishred; flesh dark red, firm, juicy; excellent; stone plump, oval; ripens the middle of July.

Tilgner Rothe Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 254, 255, 1819. 2. Dochnahl Führ- Obstkunde 3:27- 1858. 3. Ill. Handb. 103 fig., 104. 1860. Guigne de Tilgener- 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:302. 1866. Bigarreau rouge de Tilgener ? 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159- 1882. This variety is a seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany. Tree large, productive; fruit above medium in size, cordate; suture shallow; stem medium to above in length, rather deeply inserted; color yellowish, spotted and streaked with red often becoming wholly red; flesh pale white, juicy, tender, sweet, aromatic; quality very good; stone oval, acutely pointed, plump, grooved; ripens at the end of June.

Tilgner Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Ill. Handb 33 fig., 34. 1867 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 380. 1889. Bigarreau noir de Tilgner- 3. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 230 fig. 1877. Another seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany, originating about 1852. Tree vigorous, healthy, productive; fruit usually borne in threes, very large, obtuse-cordate, often pointed, compressed; suture indistinct; stem short, stout, set in a deep, rather wide cavity; skin moderately tender, glossy, black when ripe; flesh rather tender, dark red, aromatic, pleasing; stone of medium size, oval; season late.

Tobacco-Leaved. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:122, 123. 1832 Ounce. 2. Parkinson Par. Ter- 57,. 1629. Cerise à Feuilles bigarrées- 3. Knoop Fructologie 2: 35. 1771. Four to the Pound. 4. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 267-277. 1819. 5. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 49. 1831. ächte (sein sollende) Kirsche Vier auf ein Pfund. 6. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 283, 284, 679. 1819. Bigarreautier à grandes feuilles. 7. Poiteau Pom. Franc. 2: No. 10, P1. 1846. Gross blättrige Molkenkirsche. 8. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:31. 1858. Bigarreau a Feuilles de Tabac. 9. Leroy Dict. POM. 5: 201 fig., 202, 203, 204. 1877 The foliage is an object of curiosity in this variety, the leaves often measuring a foot in length and from five to eight inches in width. The fruits are rather below medium in size. The young shoots present a much undulated appearance. The variety is evidently of English origin, being mentioned in 1629, by Parkinson. Fruit below medium in size, heart-shaped; stem long, slender; skin tender, glossy, yellow overspread with red; flesh firm, transparent, juicy, rich, sweet; stone of medium size, ovate; ripens early in August.

Toctonne Précoce. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:156. ISS2. The fruit is not described.

Tokeya. P. pumila X P. simonii. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul.108: P1. 4. 1908. 2. ibid. 130:,SS P1. 13, 189. 1911. Tokeya is a cross between the Sand Cherry and the Simon plum and was introduced as South Dakota NO. 7 by the South Dakota Station. The early fruiting and the dwarfing habit of the Sand Cherries are very evident; fruit one and three-eighths inches in diameter, flat, dark red; flesh green, sprightly subacid, interinediate between that of the two parents; of good quality; pit very small.

Tomato. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 92. 1866. Pomme-d'Amour. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 21, 203. 1876. Love Apple. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 3rd App. 163. 1981. Tomato is a Duke cherry of Spanish origin. Fruit large, roundish-oblate, often depressed or tomato-shaped; suture shauow; apex a dot; stem long, slender, set in a large, broad, moderately deep cavity; skin yellowish, shaded with red; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid; quality very good; ripens early in July.

Toronto. Species? 1. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 22. 1892-93. 2. Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales 19:998. 1908. Tree upright, fairly vigorous, productive; fruit borne in twos and threes, small, cordate, flattened on the sides, dark red; flesh and juice dark red, soft.

Toupie. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 20:270. 1854. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 7, 18, fig. 9. 1882. Kreiselkirsche- 3. Ill. Handb. 25 fig., 26. 1867 Bigarreau Toupie. 4. Leroy DiCt. POM. 5:246, 247 fig. 1877. A peculiar top-shaped fruit raised by M. Denis Henrard of the University of Liege, Belgium. Tree vigorous, moderately productive; fruit large, elongated, pointed-cordate, sides slightly compressed; suture indistinct; stem moderately long, slender, often curved, inserted in a narrow, shallow cavity; skin pale red becoming darker; flesh half-tender, juicy, dark red where exposed, sweet, acidulated; pit large, oval, tapering toward the apex, plump; ripens at the last of June.

Townsend. P. cerasus. Townsend is a strong, vigorous, productive cherry grown by W.P.Townsend, Lockport, New York. Fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a high shoulder, compressed; suture distinct; stem long, rather slender, set in a broad, somewhat deep cavity; skin light amber, mottled and shaded with carmine; flesh almost tender, juicy, sprightly, refreshing; pit small; ripens late in June.

Transparent. P. cerasus. 1. Hogg Fruit Man. 92. 1866. Transparent was grown by M. De Jonghe of Brussels, Belgium, from seed ofMontmorency. Fruit above medium in size, oblate, with a faint suture which is distinctly marked at the apex; skin pale red, thin, transparent, showing the fibrous flesh beneath; flesh tender, melting, sweet, delicious.

Transparent Guigne. P. avium. 1. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 43. 1803. 2. Prince Pom.Man. 2:119. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. I 7 7. 1845. Jahns Durchsicktige- 4. Ill. Handb. 143 fig., 144. 1860. Transparent de Jahn- 5. Mas Le Verger 8:65, 66, fig. 31. 1866-73. This is a European cherry formerly grown to some extent in America. Tree moderately vigorous, erect at first; fruit small, borne in pairs, regular, oval-cordate; stem rather long, inserted in a narrow cavity; suture a wide, dark line; skin thin, glossy, pellucid, showing the stone, yellowish-white, blotched with finc red; flesh yellowish-white, with a reddish cast, tender, juicy, aromatic; stone mcdium in size, oval, free; ripens late in June.

Transparente de Meylan. P. cerasus. 11. Thomas Guide Prat. 28. 1876. Fruit large, round, transparent; flesh delicate, fine, acid at first becoming sugary; ripens at the end of May.

Transparente de Rivers. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 17, 207. 1876. This is an English variety introduced into France about 1865. Fruit large, spherical, depressed, with a spotted rose-carmine color; flesh firm, juicy, sugary, slightly acidulated; first quality; ripens early in July.

Transparente de Siebenfreund. Species? 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 28. 1876. 2. Guide Prat. 11. 1895. A large, beautiful cherry ripening the last of June from June. Siebenfreund, a druggist at Tymau, northwestern Hungary.

Triomphe de Fausin. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:162. 1882. Listed in the reference given.

Troprichters Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 206, 676, 677. 819. Guigne Troprichtz. 2. Leroy Dict- Pom. 5:340, 341 fig. 1877 An old German variety. Fruit large, roundish-oval; skin clear red becoming more intense; flesh juicy, sweet, aromatic; of good quality; ripens early in June.

Truchsess Schwarze Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 380. 1889. Listed but not described.

Tubbs. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73.-86. 1903 Tubbs originated in Iowa City, Iowa. Fruit of medium size, oblate, slightly cordate; stem long, rather stout, inserted in a deep, narrow opening; suture very indistinct; apex convex; skin thick, dark red; flesh colored, crisp, meaty, slightly acid, juicy; quality very good; stone small, round; ripens late in June.

Türkine. P. avium. 1. Christ Handb. 667. 1797. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 265-267. 1819. 3. Ill. Handb. 109 fig. 110. 1860. Christonce labeled the Plamentiner, Türkine, which has given rise to some confusion. The true Türkine was sent out by Sello as Runde Weisse Späte Kirsche. Tree not very vigorous or productive; fruit of medium size, very broad, cordate; suture indistinct; stem long, slender; cavity variable; skin spotted with red and yellow; flesh softer than most Hearts, white, juicy; quality very good; stone plump, roundish; ripens late in July.

Turkirsche Grosse. P. avium. 1. Guide Prat. 11. 1895. A German variety which resembles Elton; fruit large, pointed; flesh white, sweet; first quality; ripens throughout July.

Turner Late. Species? 1. Van Lindley Cat. 37. 1899. A productive black cherry of medium size ripening the middle of June.

Twyford. Species? 1. Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales 19:997- 1008. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; fruit borne singly and in pairs, above medium in size, roundish-cordate, flattened; stem slender, long; skin yellow, mottled with bright, light red; flesh rather firm, whitish, tinged red near the skin, with clear juice; good; ripens in New South Wales in November.

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Uhlhorns Trauerkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 28. 1876. Thomas states that this is a weeping cherry from Germany; fruit large and very good.

Ungarische Weichsel. P. cerasus. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:61. 1858. Schwarze Ungarische Kirsche. 2. Christ Wörterb. 284. 1802. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 588, 589. 1819. This cherry should not be confused with the Grosse Ungarische Kirsche which is a Heart while this is a Morello. Fruit large, round, compressed; suture indistinct; stem slender, long, shallowly inserted; color black; flesh firm, tender, subacid, with dark red juice; pit small, elongated-oval; ripens the middle of July.

Urinall. P. avium. 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 572. 1629. "The Urinall Cherrie in a most fruitfull yeare is a small bearer, having many yeares none, and the best but a few; yet doth blossome plentifully every yeare for the most part: the cherrie is long and round, like unto an Urinall, from whence it tooke his name; reddish When it is full ripe, and of an indifferent sweete rellish."

Utha. P. cerasus. 1. Minn. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 57. 1894 Spoken of by Joseph Wood, Windom, Minnesota, as a hardy but almost worthless fruit; unproductive.

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Van Gaasbeck. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 67. 875. A seedling cherry of extrordinary keeping quality exhibited by W. Van Gaasbeck, Hudson, New York. The fruit is of medium size with firm, sweet flesh.

Vanskike. Species? 1. Trans. Cal. Agr. Soc- 472. 1873 A flesh-colored cherry listed as being cultivated successfully in California.

Vaughn. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farm. Bul. 2nd Ser- 3:62. 1900. Listed as medium in growth; fruit not described.

Velser. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Krünitz Enc. 54, 55. 1790. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 304-398. 1819. Prague Tardif (Muscadét de). 3. Knoop Fructologie 2:36, 42. 1771. Wanfrieder Weichsel- 4. Christ Handb. 672. 1797. Dunce de Palatinat- 5. Mag. Hort. 20:270. 1854. Pfälzer Süssweichsel. 6. Dochnaht Führ. Obstkunde 3:49- 1858. Cerise du Palatinat. 7. Mas Le V6rger 8:153, 154, fig. 75. 1866-73 Tree of medium growth; branches long, straight; fruit above medium in size, obtuse cordate, distinguishing it from other dark Dukes, compressed; suture distinct; stem long;  color dark red; flesh colored, fibrous, juicy, sweet with a pleasing subacid flavor; stone small, broad, cordate, adhering to both stem and flesh.

Very Large Heart. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 53. 1831. Mentioned in this reference.

Vesta. P. avium. 1. U.S.D.A. Rpt. 262. 1892. 2. Am. Pom. So17. Rpt. 150. 1995. Vesta is a seedling ofNapoleonwhich originated with C.E. Hoskins, Newberg, Oregon; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate, very dark; flesh firm, sweet; quality good; ripens the middle of June.

Vilna Sweet. P. avium. 1. Ia. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 330. 1885. 2. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:31 1910. Vilna Sweet was imported by Professor J.L. Budd from Vilna, Russia. This variety shows much promise in the West as a local sort but is too tender to ship. Tree of medium size, upright, very hardy, free from disease; fruit large, roundish to oblong, compressed; stem long, slender; cavity rather deep, narrow, often lipped on the side showing a suture; color red, often entirely covering the yellow ground; flesh whitish, tinged with pink, tender but meaty, sprightly, subacid becoming sweet; pit free, large, ovate, plump, smooth; ripens the middle of July hanging to the tree until the last of August.

Violet. P. cerasus. According to a letter from H. Back & Sons, New Trenton, Indiana, Violet resembles English Morello but is more round and not as acid.

Virginia May Duke. P. avium. 1. Elliott Fr. Book 220. 854. 2. Hooper W. Fr. Book 269. 1857 A small, cordate, bright red, second rate Mazzard cherry.

Vistula. Species? 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt- 149. 1896. Mentioned as planted and as having been killed by the winter.

Voronezh No. 27. P. cerasus. 1. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 76. 1890. A promising, vigorous variety imported under this number from Voronezh, Russia; Fruit very large, bright red, round, somewhat flattened; flesh juicy, subacid; pit small; season very late.

Wabash. P. cerasus. 1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt. 41. 1895 Wabash was introduced by Samuel Kinsey, Kinsey, Ohio, the original tree having stood since 1848 on the grounds of Mrs. Ellen Pawlings, Wabash, Indiana. Fruit borne singly, of the Morellotype, roundish-oblate, above medium in size, surface smooth; cavity large, wide, deep, flaring; stem long, slender, curved; suture a shallow line; skin thin, tough, glossy, bright crimson turning to dark red; dots very small, indented; flesh yellowish, veined, translucent, tender, melting, subacid, rich; quality very good; season a week later than Early Richmond.

Wachampa. P. pumila X P. triflora. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 130:181. 1911 Wachampa is a cross between the Sand Cherry and tho Occident plum. Fruit an inch to an inch and one quarter in diameter; skin bitter, dark purple; flesh and juice dark purple.

Wagner. P. avium. 1. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:3l. 1910. Tree upright, round-topped, with long branches; fruit medium to large, roundish oblate; stem short, stout; skin thin, tender, dark red; flesh yellow, meaty, melting, sweet, with a slight acidity; quality good; ripens the middle of July.

Warner. P. avium. 1. Rural N.Y. 10:247. 1859. Warner is a supposed seedling of American Amber grown by Mathew G. Warner, Rochester, New York; fruit amber to very dark red where exposed; stem long, slender; flesh firm, juicy, sweet; ripens late in July.

Warren Transparent. Species? 1. Cole Am. Fr. Book 237, 1849. Originated with a Mr. Warren, Brighton, Massachusetts. Fruit roundish-cordate; skin pale yellow and red; flesh very tender, transparent; ripens early in July.

Washington Purple. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 162. 1882. Listed without a description.

Waterhouse. P. avium.1. U.S.D.A. Pom. Rpt- 25. 1894 This variety was originated by Dr. Warren Waterhouse, 1873, of Monmouth, Oregon. Fruit of the Bigarreau class, large, compressed, heart-shaped; cavity large, round; stem long, slender; suture a line; skin firm, smooth, glistening, yellowish-white with a bright red cheek, often nearly solid red; dots numerous, very small; flesh whitish, tinged yeflow, juicy, vinous, sprightly; quality very good.

Weeping. P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:153. 1832. Weeping or Pendulous Morello. 2. Fish Hardy-Fr. Bk. 2.:106. 1882. Under the name Weeping are included many varieties with a drooping or pendutant habit and mostly of ornamental value only. This variety, listed by Prince, although much like Toussaint, has branches more pendant than those of other weeping cherries. The Weeping or Pendulous Morello of Fish is included here. The head in this variety seldom exceeds four or five feet in diaxneter, and the slender branches droop on all sides until they trail on the ground; the fruit is of medium size and when fully ripe is of a pleasant acid flavor.

Weeping Black Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Flor. & Pom. 16. 1879 Tramerknorpelkirsche. 2. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:40. 1858 Bigarreau pleureur. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 23. 1876. One of the earliest black Bigarreaus. It differs from other sorts of its class in the weeping habit of the tree; very ornamental.

Weeping Napoleon. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt- 53. 871. A seedling of Napoleon introduced by a Mr. Dougall, Windsor, Ontario. If budded high the branches are pendulous, which, with the large, dark fruit, makes a handsome ornamental.

Weis, Roth und Rosenfarbig Marmorirte Kramelkirsche. Species? 1. Kraft Pom. Aust. 1:3, Tab. 6 fig. 2. 1792. Flesh white, breaking, firm, with colorless juice, pleasing; ripens the middle of July.

Weisse Rosenroth Marmorirte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Christ Wörterb. 280. 1802. Weiss and hellroth gefleckte grosse Kramelkirsche. 2. Kraft Pom. Aust. :1:3, Tab. 6 fig. 1. 1792. Flesh white, less firm than others of this class; juice colorless; stone yellowish; ripens the middle of July.

Weisse Mandelkirsche. Species? 1. Proskauer Obstsort- 58. 1907. Listed, not described.

Wellington. P. cerasus. 31. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 56. 1831. 2,. Elliott Fr. Book 220. 1854. Wellington's Weichsel. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:60. 1858. Griotte de Wellington. 4. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:307. 1866. Mentioned by Elliottin 1854 as unworthy of further culture. Bigarreau Wellington, often used as a synonym of Napoleon, should not be mistaken for this Morello of supposedly English origin. Fruit of medium size, cordate; stem long; skin thin, glossy black; flesh firm dark red, moderately juicy, pleasant subacid; stone elongated, cordate, free; ripens the middle of July.

Wendell Mottled. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:494 fig. 1847. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 213. 1854. 3. Hoffy N. Am. Pom. P1. 1860. Wendell Mottled was raised from a seed of Yellow Spanish planted in 1840, by Dr. Herman Wendell, Albany, New York. Tree upright, thrifty, bears early and abundantly; fruit large, obtuse-cordate, with a distinct suture; stem long, rather stout, set in a moderately deep cavity; skin dark purplish-red, mottled and streaked, nearly black; flesh deep crimson, firm, crisp, juicy; stone small; ripens the middle of July.

Wenzlecks Bunte Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 162. 1882. Mentioned in the reference given.

Werder Early Black. P. avium. 1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 169. 1845. 2. Ill. Handb. 53 fig., 54. 1860. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 93. 1866. Werdersche Schwarze Allerfrüheste Herzkirsche. 4. Christ Handb. 683. 1797 5. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 109-111. 1819. Guigne Hâtive de Werder. 6. Mortillet Le Cerisier 2:82, 300. 1866- 7. Mas le Verger 8:27, 28, fig. 12. 1866-73. Bigarreau Werder. 8. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:251 fig. 1877. This cherry was received by Truchsess in 1794, from Christ; of unknown origin, Tree strong and upright in growth, very productive; fruit valuable for its earliness, rather large, flattened-cordate, with a deep suture on one side; stem of medium length and thickness, inserted in a rather small cavity; skin thin, rather deep purple changing to purplishblack; flesh deep purple, with abundant colored juice, firm, tender, sweet, yet modcrately sprightly and aromatic; quality good; stone large, ovate, flattened at the base; ripens from the last of May to the first of June.

Werder'sche Bunte Herzkirsche. P. avium. 1. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 382. 1889. Listed without a description.

Wheeler. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 73:97. 1903. A hardy seedling of English Morello originating with H.J. Wheeler, Camforth, Iowa.

White Bigarreau. P. avium. 1. Mich. Sta. Bul. 205:28. 1903. This variety was received by the Michigan Station from the United States Department of Agriculture in 1895; it is between the Duke and the Morello in type. Tree low, slow in growth; fruit large, liaht red, slightly darker on one side; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly subacid.

White French. Species? 1. Pa. Fr. Gr. Soc. Rpt. 11. 1881. Spoken of as doing well in Pennsylvania.

White French Guigne. P. avium. 1. Barry Fr. Garden 323. 1851. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 74. 1862. 3. Garvin & Son Cat. is. 1892. A distinct, rather large cherry listed in the fruit catalog of the American Pomological Society for 1862. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit creamy-white; flesh tender, melting, juicy, sweet; ripens the middle of July.

White Gean. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831. Listed, not described.

White Hungarian Gean. P. avium. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 50. 1831. A tender-fleshed, obtuse-cordate cherry, amber in color ripening in July; second quality.

White Mazzard. P. avium. 1. Manning Book of Fruits 111. 1838. 2. Mag. Hort. 8:295. 1842. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 171. 1845. White Mazzard originated with Robert Manning at Salem, Massachusetts, from a seed of White Bigarreau. Downing considered it similar to Black Mazzard, except in color. Tree handsome, upright in growth, productive; fruit of medium size, cordate, of a cream color, with a bright red cheek; not of the finest flavor; ripens late.

White Spanish. P. avium 1. Parkinson Par. Ter. 572. 1620. 2. Krünitz Enc. 61, 62, 63. 1790. 3. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort- 317-320. 1810. 4. Ill. Handb. 127 fig., 128. 1860. This variety and Yellow Spanishare much alike in appearance yet the best European authorities consider them distinct. Tree healthy, not large, productive; fruit large, roundish-cordate, somewhat compressed; stem long; cavity depressed on the ventral side; color waxy yellow,, streaked and dotted with red; flesh yellowish, firm, juicy, sweet, pleasant; ripens late.

White Tartarian. P. avium. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2:194. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 178. 1845. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 315. 1884.Fraser's White Tartarian- 4. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 43. 1803. A variety with this name was grown for many years in America which was finally proved by William Prince to be a sub-variety of the White Heart. Tree vigorous, erect, usually productive; fruit rather small, roundish, inclined to obtuse-cordate; stem long, slender; skin transparent, pale yellow, approaching amber on the exposed cheek; flesh whitish-yellow, nearly tender, juicy, pleasant, brisk subacid becoming sweet; very good in quality; stone large, oval; season early.

White Transparent. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 56. 1831 Mentioned in the reference given.

Wier's Seedlings. D.B. Wier, Lacon, Illinois, disseminated several seedlings which he selected from a large number originated by him.

Wier No. 2. P. cerasus. 1. Rural N.Y. 49:453. 1890. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 37. 1904-05. This cherry is said to be a seedling of Early Richmond but of the Morellotype. Tree medium to large, upright-spreading, fruiting regularly; fruit of medium size, oblate-conic; cavity shallow, broacl; stem short; suture slight; color dark red; flesh fim, meaty, dark red, mildly subacid; quality fair; stone oval; precedes Early Richmond.

Wier No. 131. P. cerasus. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. SP. Rpt- 37. 1904-05. Tree upright, productive, hardy; fruit cordate, black; juice dark, sweeter than many of the sour sorts; ripens earlier than Northwest and Early Richmond.

Wier No. 12. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul.73:88- 1903. Sometimes listed as Wier, being one of the best of Mr. Wier's seedlings but only moderately productive, Tree of medium size, slightly spreading; fruit of medium size, elongated-cordate; cavity rather deep and broad; stem stout, rather long; suture obscure; skin thick, tender, dark red; flesh firm, crisp, with slightly colored juice, sprightly subacid; quality fair; stone large, oval; season from July 12th to 20th; the latest of the Wier seedlings.

Wier No. 13. P. cerasus. 1. Kan. Sta. Bul. 73: 190. 1897. Tree upright, with scant foliage; fruit of medium size; skin dark red, tough; flesh slightly colored, mild; precedes Early Richmond; of no value.

Wier No. 19. P. cerasus. 1. Kan. Sta. Bul. 73:190. 1897 Fruit of medium size, oval, dark red; worthless.

Wier No. 24. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul.73:88- 1903. Tree medium in growth, upright-spreading; fruit conical, cordate, of medium size; cavity shallow; stem of medium length; suture indistinct; skin smooth, dark red; flesh firm, light yellow, juicy, sprightly subacid; quality fair; stone almost spherical, smooth; ripens the middle of June; not worthy of further trial.

Wier No. 44. P. cerasus. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul.73:88- 1903. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Sp. Rpt. 38. 1904-05. Tree mediurn in growth, upright-spreading; fruit small to medium, oblate; cavity shallow; stem short; skin thin, tender, light red; flesh tender, juicy, acid; good; season late June; lcss productive than No. 2.

Wild Ross-shire. P. cerasus. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 57. 1831 A small, mild, round, red fruit with juicy flesh, ripening in July; allied to the Kentish.

Wilde Bunte Marmorkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:381858 Distinguished from the Wild Red Bird cherry by its firmer flesh and later ripening. It grows wild and is sometimes cultivated along the highways; Ripens the middle of August.

Wilhelmine Kleindienst. P. avium. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 20. 1816. of German origin; vigorous and productive; fruit large, brilliant reddish-brown; flesh firm, agreeably sweet; ripens the middle of July.

Wilkinson. P. avium. 1. Mag. Hort. 8:284. 1842. 2. Barry Fr. Garden 323. 1851. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 476. 1869. Wilkinson is thought by Hovey to be a native of Rhode Island. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit of medium size, resembling Black Heart but is more sprightly; ripens the middle of July.

Willamette. P. avium. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 127. 1875, 2. Wickson Cal. Fruits 290. 1889. 3. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:62. 1900. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 192. 1907 Willamette originated withSeth Lewelling, Milwaukee, Oregon, from a seed of Napoleon. Tree strong in growth; fruit large, light red; flesh whitish, firm, juicy, sweet, with a pleasant flavor; ripens in the Northwest in late June.

Willis Early. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Fa Rpt- 465. 1900. 2. Call. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser. 3:62. 1900. Tree vigorous in growth; fruit of medium size, obtuse-cordate; skin yellow, mottled with red; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, tender, sweet; ripens early in May.

Willow-Leaved. P. avium X P. cerasus. 1. Prince Pom. Man. 2: 141. 1832. May Duke, Willow-Leaved. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 53. 1831. Griottier à feuilles de Pêcher. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 280. 1832. Weidenblättrige Süssweichsel- 4. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:47- 1858 Cerisier de Hollande et jeuilles de saule ou de balsamine. 5. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:505. 1860. Griottier a feuilles de Saule. 6. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5: 287 fig., 298, 1877 Cerisier à Feuilles de Saule- 7. Mas Pom. Gen. 11:160. 1882. The Willow-Leaved cherry seems to have originated in Holland and has been known since the middle of the Eighteenth Century. It differs from May Duke in the size and the shape of the foliage. It is not only cultivated for its singular foliage but also for its fine fruit. If the tree grows rapidly the leaves are said to assume normal shape.

Winkler Black. P. avium. 1. Can. Exp. Farm Bul. 2nd Ser3:62. 1900. Wincklers schwarze Knorpelkirsche. 2. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort. 206, 676. 1819. Winkler's schwarze Herzkirsche. 3. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:35. 1858. Bigarreau noir Winkler- 4. Leroy Dict. Pom. 5:231 fig. 1877. This is a seedling from Guben, Prussia, Germany. Fruit borne in pairs of medium size, broad, obtuse-cordate, compressed; suture indistinct; skin dark red; flesh pale red, firm, aromatic, subacid, pleasing; pit rather large, oval; ripens early in July; not very productive.

Winter Schwarze. Species? 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 57. 1831 Listed without a description.

Wohltragende Holländische Kirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Truchsess-Heim Kirschensort 591, 593. 1819. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 382. 1889. Grosse wohlitragende holländische Morellè. 3. Christ Wörterb. 298. 1802. Fruit large, sides unequally compressed; suture indistinct; stem medium in length, set in a large cavity; skin tough, dark brown when ripe; flesh fibrous, clear red, darker near the stone, with colored juice, pleasingly sour; stone long, colored; ripens late in July.

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Yan. P. avium. 1. Rural N.Y. 61:577 fig. 235. 1902. 2. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:32. 1910. Yan is a seedling grown by Seth Lewelling of Milwaukee, Oregon; named for a faithful Chinese workman. Fruit large, roundish-cordate, with a distinct suture on one side; stem long, stout; skin tough, dark purplish-red; flesh streaked and flecked with light red, firm, juicy, mild subacid; very late; productive.

Yellow Glass. P. avium. 1. Ia. Sta. Bul. 19:551. 1892. 2. Ibid. 73:89 1903. 3. Wash. Sta. Bul. 92:32. 1910. Yellow Glass was introduced from North Silesia by Professor J.L. Budd, Ames, Iowa. Tree large, upright, with abundant foliage; fruit medium to above in size, roundish-cordate; cavity deep; stem long; suture a line; skin thin, tough, light lemon in color; flesh firm, yellow, meaty, sweet, with colorless juice; quality good; stone large, round, clinging.

Young Large Black Heart. P. avium. 1. Pioneer Nur- Cat. 16. 1905-06. Merely listed in the reference given.

Yuksa. P. pumila X P. armeniaca. 1.S. Dak. Sta. Bul. 108: 1908. Yuksa is noted in the reference as a cross between the Sand Cherry and the New Large Apricot.

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Zimmtkirsche. P. cerasus. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:64. 1858. Fruit medium in size, round, flattened at the stem, without a suture; cavity deep; stem long; skin thin, dark red almost black; flesh aromatic, subacid; stone oval-pointed.

Zweifarbige Kirsche. Species? 1. Mathieu Nom Pom. 382. 1889. Bicolor. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 159. 1882. Listed without a description.

Zwitterkirsche. Species? 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 11: 162. 1882. Mentioned in this reference.

Zzuckser Schwarze Knorpelkirsche. P. avium. 1. Dochnahl Führ. Obstkunde 3:35 1858. Fruit large, elongated, sides strongly compressed; suture shallow; apex depressed; skin reddish-black; flesh very dark red, pleasing, slightly sweet; ripens in late July.