POPULAR VARIETIES OF HARDY FRUITS.
The following is a continuation of articles descriptive of fruits, published in
the reports of the Department of Agriculture for 1862, 1863, and 1864:
BY F. R. ELLIOTT, CLEVELAND, OHIO.
Synonyms.—Gros Precoce, De St. Jean, De St. Jean Rouge, Gros d'Alexandre, Gross Früh, Precoce d'Esperin.
Fruit.— Size—medium to large. Form —roundish, oblong, compressed,
projecting considerably on the side of the suture. Suture—deep, and terminating in a projecting point towards the back or beyond the axis of the fruit.
Skin—downy. Color—pale orange in the shade, fine bright orange red, and
marblings or spots of deeper red in the sun. Flesh—pale orange, separating
freely from the stone; juicy, rich. Stone—much flattened, oval, sharp on the
front, perforated along the back, from base to apex. Kernel—bitter. Season—
early in July.
Tree.—Of vigorous growth, with large, broad oval leaves, tapering towards
the footstalks or petiole, and with little ear-like appendages in place of glands.
An abundant bearer, an old variety from France, and one of the very best
early sorts known.
DUCHESS OF OLDENBURGH.
Fruit.—Size—medium to large. Form—roundish, flattened. Skin—smooth,
with a light bluish bloom. Color—light and deep rich red, washed, striped and
splashed on a yellow ground. Stem — short. Cavity—acuminate. Basin —deep,
wide, even, regular. Calyx—large, nearly closed. Flesh—slightly yellowish
white, sharp sub-acid, juicy, and, when well ripened, pretty rich. Season
September, and often keeping into October.
Tree.—An upright, vigorous, hardy and healthy grower, with dark-colored
shoots and broad, dark-green, coarsely serrated leaves. A profuse bearer, apparently adapting itself to all soils and situations, and yielding a fruit of great
value for marketing and for cooking purposes. It is of Russian origin.
Synonyms.—Pomme de Heige, Sanguineus, Snow.
Fruit.—Size—medium. Form—roundish, somewhat flattened.
Skin—smooth. Color—a greenish yellow ground, mostly overspread in the sun with
a clean rich red; in the shade the red is pale, streaked, and blotched with the
dark-red. Stem—slender. Cavity—narrow and funnel-shaped. Calyx—small.
Basin—narrow and shallow. Flesh—remarkably white, tender, juicy, negative character, but deliciously pleasant, with a slight perfume. Core—close, small,
compact. Seeds—light brown, long and pointed. Season—October and to
Tree.—Hardy, healthy, moderate grower, of a rather diverging habit, with
dark-colored shoots and long narrow leaves, bearing annually a fair crop, with
a profusion in alternate years. A rich but dry or well-drained soil seems to
suit it best. No orchard in the north can be counted as complete without this
variety; for while its fruit is not of the highest character, it is just so good
that everybody likes to eat of it; and when cooked, it is white, puffy, and
delicious. Of French origin.
Fruit.—Size—medium. Form—roundish, slightly oval. Color—dark, rich
red. Flesh—red, tender, juicy, sprightly, lively acid. Pit—small. Stem—
short to medium. Season—rather late, say middle of July.
Tree.—Of the morello class, quite vigorous, and forming a good-sized tree,
with sharply serrated, broad, oval-shaped leaves; an abundant bearer of a fruit
that has no equal for canning purposes, and when fully ripe is very fine for the
table. It is worthy a place in all collections, however small they may be. Of
GREAT BIGARREAU OF MEZEL.
Synonyms.—Monstreaux de Mezel, Bigarreau Gaubalis.
Fruit.— Size—very large. Form—obtuse, heart-shaped, flattened on sides.
Surface—uneven. Color—dark reddish purple, becoming apparently quite
black at maturity. Stem—long, rather slender, in a rather deep and regular
cavity. Pit—large, oval. Flesh—purplish red, firm, a little coarse, juicy, sweet
and good, but not of the highest flavor. Season—last of June and early in July.
Tree.—A strong, vigorous grower, rather crooked while young, becoming at
mature age a broad, open, spreading tree, with large leaves, and producing
abundantly a fruit that commands the highest price in market. It is possible
the Great Bigarreau or Large Red Prool may be identical, but as there is some
question of it, we have omitted the names in our synonyms. The tree is of
French origin, and came to this country with a loud flourish of trumpets.
While young it is not a great bearer, but when the trees have acquired some
twelve or more years of age they are good and regular bearers.
Fruit.—Bunches—medium, very compact, occasionally shouldered. Berries—
above medium size, round, pale red. Skin—thick. Flesh—tender, with some
pulp, very sweet, juicy, with a rich musk flavor that is very strong until the
fruit is fully ripe, and then often offensive to some persons. It colors its fruit
as early as the Concord, but, as a rule, does not really mature it much earlier
than the Catawba. Its berries hold well, and its thick skin enables it to withstand
changes of temperature better than thin-skinned; hence the Diana improves by
being left upon the vine until after pretty severe frosts. As a variety for packing and keeping it has no superior. For wine purposes many claim it to be very
valuable; our impression is that it has too much of the foxy character to ever
make a very fine white wine. A dry and poor gravelly soil suits it best; on
deep rich soils it inclines to make too much wood. It was grown from seed of
the Catawba by Mrs. Diana Crehore, Hilton, Massachusetts.
Fruit.—Bunches—medium or above. Berries—above medium, yet not large,
loosely and evenly distributed on the bunch, which may often be termed double shouldered. Color—handsome pale red or wine-color, almost translucent
Flesh—melting to the centre, highly flavored, juicy, sweet, vinous. Skin—thin
and tender, with little or no coloring matter, except in the outer corticle.
Seeds—few and small. It ripens about with the Concord, while its quality
more nearly compares with a fully ripened Catawba than any other sort. The
vine is a healthy grower, with rather short-jointed wood, broad, three-lobed light
green foliage, that in most sections at the north has not mildewed; but in
Missouri it has not sustained a favorable character, and may prove valuable
only for northern sections. It originated with C. W. Grant, of Iona island,
New York, probably from a seed of Catawba.
Fruit.—Bunches—large; very compact. Berries—very large, round, black,
with a thick, blue bloom. Skin—rather thick. Flesh—with some pulp; melting, juicy, sweet, sprightly vinous, sub-acid. Ripens with the Concord, to which
it is superior in quality. The vine is a vigorous, strong grower; an early and
good bearer, and quite hardy and free from disease of mildew. This, with No.
15, which we figured in the Department Report for 1863, will undoubtedly prove
the most valuable of many seedlings originating with Mr. E. S. Rogers, of Salem,
Massachusetts. The leaves are broad and dark green, five-lobed, exhibiting
strongly the native fox grape, claimed as its female parent.
Synonyms.—Due d'Aremberg, Colmar Deschamps, L'Orphelines, Deschamps,
D'Aremberg Parfait, Beurre des Orphelines, Orpheline d'Engheim, Soldat Laborder, of some.
Fruit. — Size — above medium.
Form—obovate, obtuse pyriform, tapering toward the stem, where it
often terminates in a fleshy junction.
Color— dull, pale green, becoming at
maturity a light yellow, clouded with
green, and with traces and patches of light cinnamon russet. Stem—short, stout; sometimes with, but oftener
without, depression. Calyx—small,
with short, closed segments. Basin—
full medium depth. Flesh—white,
juicy, melting, vinous. Core—medium. Seeds—light brown, acutely pointed.
Season — December to March.
Trees.—Very hardy; commencing
to bear early, even when grown on the
pear root; a good, healthy grower,
with long-jointed wood of yellowish
brown color, dotted with pale gray specks.
and finely serrated. A warm, rich,
yet loose soil, seems to suit this variety better than heavy clays. It is a good bearer, the fruit hanging well
upon the tree, and may be gathered and packed in barrels, as with apples, to
be brought into a warm room and ripened as desired, from time to time. It is of Belgian origin, and has often been confounded with Glout Morceau.
Fruit.—Size—above medium. Form—obtuse pyriform; slightly angular.
Color—rich brown russet, mostly overspreading a yellow ground, with a
brownish red cheek in the sun.
Stem—rather short, with an occasional lip-like at its junction with
tie fruit. Cavity—shallow, with unequal projections.
Calyx—with segments nearly erect, surrounded by depressed, crescent-shaped furrows, in a shallow basin.
Core— small. Seeds — blackish.
Flesh—yellowish white, melting,
buttery, juicy, sweet, vinous.
Season—last of September and in October.
Tree. — Hardy, vigorous, up
right grower, becoming spreading
as it matures, with dark-brown
shoots, and broad waved leaves,
with rounded serratures. The tree
in productive, and comes early
into bearing on the pear roots.
It originated with Colonel H.H. Coit, of Euclid, Cuyahoga county,
Ohio, and is of such excellence as
to deserve a place in all collections.
Our outline drawing was made
from a email specimen, while our shaded drawing was from a full-sized fruit.
[description in The Pears of New York]
Synonyms.—Seedling Seckel, Kirtland's Seedling, Kirtland's Beurre.
Fruit.—Size—medium, or a little above.
obtuse pyriform. Color—a rich,
deep yellow, overspread with cinnamon russet; in the sun many
of the russet spots become almost
red. Stem—usually stout; of medium length; curved. Calyx—
short, reflexed, persistent. Basin — shallow.
Core — small.
Seeds — short, ovate, blackish.
Flesh—white, melting, juicy,
sweet, aromatic. Season—September.
Tree. — An upright grower, with short-jointed, stout, yellowish-brown shoots, and irregularly
but sharply serrated leaves, with
stout petioles; a hardy, healthy
sort, partaking in its habits very much of its parent, the Seckel, from seed of which It was grown by H. T. Kirtland, of Mahoning county,
Ohio. It is an early and productive bearer on the pear root, and succeeds
admirably on the quince.
[description in The Pears of New York
Synonyms.—Bergamotte Sieulle, Benrre Sieulle, Sienlle.
Fruit.—Size—medium to large. Form—roundish, a little irregularly depressed, and tapering slightly toward the stem. Color—dull,
yellowish green, broadly shaded and marbled with bright
red on the sunny side, and with many large reddish russet specks. Stem—stout, medium length, planted in a deep
cavity, sometimes presenting appearance as of a swollen lip on one side. Calyx—with broad reflexed segments.
Basin — shallow. Flesh —white, melting, juicy, vinous. Core—large.
Seeds—large, dark brown. Season—November to January.
Tree.—A vigorous, upright, rather compact grower, with moderately stout, rather long-jointed wood, of a brownish olive color, and regularly
speckled with large grayish white specks. Leaves with long slender petioles, light green,
ovate acuminate, waved and finely serrated, of French origin, and although
known, does not seem to have received the attention that it deserves, probably
because its fruit at the usual time of exhibitions in the fall is unripe, and,
again, is gone before midwinter shows. The tree on the quince root is one of
the best growers and bearers in the whole collection, and it ripens just when
the earlier varieties of fall pears arc about gone.
[description in The Pears of New York]
Fruit.—Size—large. Form—roundish, oval, oblong. Color—greenish yellow, with stripes and splashes of green, covered with a thin bloom. Suture
medium, apex dimpled. Stem—short and stout, planted in a rather deep
cavity. Flesh—yellow, sugary, juicy, rich, excellent. Stone—small, from
which the flesh separates freely. Season—early in October.
Tree.—A vigorous grower, with smooth branches, large, broad, ovate, rounded,
pointed leaves, with rounded irregular serratures; very productive, of foreign
origin, and a valuable acquisition to late ripening varieties.
Synonyms.—American Yellow Gage, White Gage, Harvest Gage.
Fruit.—Size—above medium. Form—oval,broadest near the stalk. Suture—a mere line.
Color— golden yellow, a little clouded. Bloom—white and abundant.
Flesh yellow, sugary, rich, sometimes a little- dry, separates freely from the stone. Stem—about one inch long, set in a small round cavity.
Ripens at the north early in August, at the south about middle of June, where
it is said to become quite juicy and to ripen gradually, thus forming one of the
most valuable varieties. At the north its hardiness and productiveness, together "with its rich sugary character and fine show, make it indispensable in
the market orchard.
Tree.—A healthy grower, with short-jointed, smooth branches, glossy leaves, and forming a large spreading head.